Oliver's Site, Page 35. Outer Space














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Oliver's Site
 
Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.
 
 

Continued from previous page, 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain

 
 

35. Outer Space

 

Oliver's Site (continued)

This is page 35 of Oliver's Site: 

Outer Space

To return to home page: http://members.tripod.com/chanyut_1/oliverssite/

 

 

 
















 
 
 
 
Our Star  -   Our Sun
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Sun
 

Ra, Egyptian sun god, in one of several forms, with sundisk on his head 

 

Greek Sun god Helius with chariot drwn by four horses, painted on an Athenian jar, ca. 400s B. C.  Called Helios by Romans.  

 

 
Secrets of the Sun
 
Nova documentary
 
 
 
 
The Solar Dynamics Observatory
 
The Sun Up Close and Personal
 
Dean Pesnell, Project Scientist for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

Lecture
 
Exploring Space Lecture Series
 
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC., March 24, 2011

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=krYCvJOW_KU

 

The Sun

Discusion on the BBC weekly radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, July 10, 2014

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b048nlfb#programme-broadcasts

 

 

Ulysses

A space probe of the Sun luanched by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Research Council of Canada in 1990. Mission completed in 2008.
 
 
Ulysses - A Solar Odyssey
 
NASA JPL Solar Astronomy Probe
 
Pre-1990 launch documentary (1989)  
 
 
 
The Ulysses legacy
 
Documentary (c. 2008)
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
                       
 
 
 
                     ---------
 
 
 
Our Solar System
 
 
8 main planets
 
- 4 inner (terrestial) planets
 
and the asteroids
 
- 4 outer planets
 
- - 2 gas giants
 
- - 2 ice giants
 
Kuiper Belt
 
Oord Belt (Cloud)
 

 
Solar System
 
Heliosphere pic here
 

Sun, Planets. Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud

 

The Structure of the Solar System

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=088qe3t3OIs

 

Solar System

Our Solar System and the Pluto Problem

 

Lecture # 3 of astr 160: Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics by Charles Bailyn, Professor of Astronomy and Physics, Yale U., Spring 2007  

 

Conservation of Momentum in Exoplanets   -   Inner and Outer Solar System Objects  -   Kuiper Belt Objects and Oort Cloud   -   Classification and Interpretation of Celestial Objects

 

Go to: Inner and Outer Solar System Objects at the 14:02 mark

 

Yale U.:

 

http://oyc.yale.edu/astronomy/astr-160/lecture-3#ch3

 

You Tube:

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=psGVZRhemCg

Transcript: 

 

The Planets

Discussion on the BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, May 27, 2004

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p004y25b

 

How the Solar system was made

Documentary

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=37Ju5DEbkR4

 

The Solar System

Episode 3 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? by David Butler 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XkuTINYgTF8

 

Searching for Life Beyond Earth

Finding Life Beyond Earth

PBS/NOVA documentary, 2011 

Searching for life on Mars, Saturn's moons . . .

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zviSDrg8mlo

 

 

 

The Planets, Op. 32

Gustav Holst (1914 - 1916)

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra

1. Mars, the Bringer of War
2. Venus, the Bringer of Peace
3. Mercury, the Winged Messenger
4. Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity
5. Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age
6. Uranus, the Magician
7. Neptune, the Mystic

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AHVsszW7Nds

 

Coro y Orquesta Sinfónica de Galicia (2014)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Av0trc_Fzt4

 

--------------

 

 

 
 
 

 

The Four Inner Planets
 
The scale of the four inner planets compared: from left to right, above, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
 
 
Exploring Space
 
The Sun and Inner Planets  -   
Mercury Venus Earth and Mars
 
Documentary
 
Voice and music are on separate channels, so music can be turned off
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
----------------
 
 
 
Mercury
 
 
Hermes
 
Mercury
 
 
Mercury, closest planet to the Sun 
 
 
Planet Mercury
 
Episode from the documentery series Space School
 
 
photo
 
Eliptical orbit, left, and precession of perihelion, right
 
Mariner 10 made three fly-bys of Mercury between March
1974 and March 1975
 
 
photo
 
Mariner 10 photographed surface of Mercury in 1974 and 1975.
 
 
 
 
 
Mercury: Exploration of a Planet
 
1970s documentary describes Mariner 10 mission to Mercury
 
 
or, the same:
 
 
 
MESSENGER made three fly-bys of Mercury between January 2008 and September 2009 and entered permanent orbit around the planet in 2011
 
Mercury photographed by MESSENGER in 2006
 
 
Mercury photographed by MESSENGER
 
North polar region photographed by MESSENGER
 
 
 
 
Exploring Mercury by Spacecraft:
 
The MESSENGER Mission
 
Third lecture
 
Exploring Space Lecture Series, 2011
 
Sean C. Solomon, Principal Investigator, MESSENGER mission, Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington
 
 
 
 
BepiColumbo   -   Next mission to Mercury
 
To be launched from Cape Canaveral in August 2015, enter Mercury orbit in January 2022 and transmit data for two years
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
----------------

 

Venus

Morning and evening star

Venus is the brightest star in the night sky

Moon and Venus in the evening

Moon and Venus in the morning

 

Aphrodite, Greek goddess of beauty, love, pleasure and fertility; called Venus by the Romans 

 

God of the Greek Myths – Aphrodite

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlXgqL7qYi4 

 

Aphrodite   -   Greek Goddess of Love and Beauty

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDCB38At1c4

 

 

Venus de Milo, marble statue, carved ca. 130 to 100 B. C.,

found on the island of Milos in the Aegean in 1820, on

display in the Louvre in Paris.

 

 

Venus de Milo - ancient Greek statue

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjDszjo6F2E

 

Venus di Medici

 

 

Venus Exploration

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LYK9rbVpOcI

 

Images of Venus from Magellan and Messenger  

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3EnUtV-ClM

 

Earth's Evil Twin

 

National Geographic documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Juh47kRlkh0

 

 

 

Return to Venus  

 

NASA blog 2010

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTo-DOJhpXw

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNgZA2Xkx-4

 

 

 

The Planet Venus

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=Hg_NzWbsvxE&NR=1

  

 

Transit of Venus

Venus transiting the Sun  in 2004

HD Video of Transit of Venus 2012 Image

Venus transiting the Sun in 2012

 

NASA announcement

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uWBc1P7ll28  

 

Transit of Venus

 

NASA description

Part 1.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAx-_iuCq14&feature=relmfu

Part  2.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1qi4tPDW_k&feature=relmfu

 

Captain James Cook of England observes the transit of Venus from the island of Tahiti in 1769

 

Where is Tahiti Located?

Map of the Pacific Ocean with Tahiti

 

Observation of the transit of Venus from the island of Moorea

June 3, 1769

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXflwbOL_FM

 

Voyages of James Cook

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg, 3 December 2015

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06qkrks

 

Observation of the transit of Venus from the Hawaiian Islands

1874

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zhr0wHQj0uk&feature=relmfu

 

Transit of Venus

Sten Odenwald of NASA discusses the Transit of Venus that will occur on June 5, 2012, LIbrary of Congress

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1wvC6o_QUM

 

Views of the 2012 Transit

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_7U5VbasKr4&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGgzANfSbyQ&feature=related

 

Kepler (Mission) Transits

Short documentary about transits of planets circling other stars as a possible indicatation of potential for life

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eb8J054FfHQ&feature=relmfu

 

 

 
 
 
 
---
 
 
 
 
Earth
 
 
 
Earth viewed from Moon
 
 
Earth's motion around the Sun
 
Blogger's Upload
 
 
 
 

Distances to the Sun and Moon

 

Section 9 of 13 of Famous Math Problems with Norman J. Wildberger (2013)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-AxmZ_mqDPc

 
 
Earth
 
Episode 2 of How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
 
How distances about the Earth and to the stars are measured  
 
 
 
 

Birth of the Earth

 

Episode # 3 of Season # 2 from the National Geographic documentary series How the Earth was Made (2009)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OX_mhGTc81c

 
 
 
The Earth's Origins

 

Discussion on BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, July 5, 2001

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547hl

 

 

 

 

From the study of seismic waves geologists have determined that Earth has a solid inner core of iron the size of the moon (yellow) and an outer core of liquid iron mixed with other elements the size of Mars (orange).

 

 

The Earth's Core

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, April 30, 2015

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05s3gyv

 

 

 

Early Geology

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, April 12, 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01dgh7d

 

 

History of the World in 2 Hours

 

2011 documentary (HD 1080p)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-lB-08gGSQc

 

 

The Space Shuttle
 
Source: NASA
 
 

The Space Shuttle

British documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwKift93UNI

 
 
 
Space Stations
 
Source: ESA
 
 

International Space Station

First 10 Years, Next 10 Years

A history of the space stations

2010 Documentary

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doJYZlFiRYA

 

Exploring the International Space Station

(1080p)

A tour in 2014

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qA0T8WumxT4

 

 

 
-----------------
 
 
 

 
 

The Moon

The moon too has a solid inner core of iron (orange) and a liquid iron outer core (yellow).

 

 

The Earth and its moon   -  a twin planet, binary planet

Moon formed from the Earth theory, captured planet theory, impact theory, double-impact theory . . .

 

                                                  Impact Theory

 

The Moon 

Discussion on BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, Nov 2, 2011 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/player/b016lh15

 

Evolution of the Moon

NASA presentation with short tour

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WOYhm-1OUb4

 

Origin of the Moon

excerpt

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m8P5ujNwEwM

 

Moon Origin

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibV4MdN5wo0

 

Did Earth Have Two Moons?

NASA presentation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbZ4MlTw2JA

 

The Origin of the Moon

Documentary

(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-Gi1HpRAVc

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-ob3E_-ok8&feature=relmfu

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTcIZaZzsgg&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d77yP-Q2My4&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUxj46GO0uY&feature=relmfu

 

If we had no moon

Documentary

(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wW_vmnfTeWM&feature=relmfu

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acu2zs5fKoo&feature=relmfu

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8fKubr1wro&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S53nLob2SoM&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVmdjkekAJo&feature=relmfu

 

The day the moon was gone

Documentary

(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JirKUXsSLtc

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xii4HrYDxuw

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0-CxNh3xmY&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQgV_tb5A3w&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jb2D8cq81Lc&feature=relmfu

 

Moon Mysteries Investigated 

National Geographic documentary 

(3 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2cV3oWvCq8

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ng9LnsHJTw&feature=relmfu 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjDUnI5i0bo&feature=relmfu

 

 
Super Moon
 
supermoon november 14 2016, supermoon november 14 2016 pictures, supermoon nov 2016, largest supermoon 2016, largest supermoon nov 14 2016 pictures
Comparison of the moon, at Apogee, on 22 April 2016, and at Perigee, on 14 November 2016
 
 
At 13:52 GMT on 14 November 2016, the moon was at its closest point to the earth since January 1948.
 
 
How it appeared from Australia
 
 
 
 

---------------------

 

For more about the planet Earth, see page 1. The Universe:

http://members.tripod.com/chanyut_1/oliverssite/id34.html

 

 

 
 
 
 
                       ------
 
 
 
Asteroid 2010 (TK7)
 
 
A Trojan Asteroid 2010 (TK7) orbiting Lagrange Point in Earth orbit 60 degress ahead of the planet
 
 
Earth Trojan asteroid, 2010 TK7
 
 
 
Earth's first Trojan asteroid 2010 TK7 orbit
 
 
 
Trojan Asteroid 2010 TK7
 
 
 
Earth's First Trojan Asteroid "2010 TK7"
 
Kurdistan Planetarium
 
 
 
Trojan asteroid dances ahead of the Earth
 
Video Guardian
 
 
 
PBS News Hour
 
July 2011
 
 
 
Nibiru or Trojan Asteroid caught in Orbit with Earth
 
2012 TV interview with Mike Brown
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
--------------------
 
 
 
 

 

 

Mars

 

Mars in the fourth planet from the Sun

 

pic goes here

 

Mars is an evening star

Mars is a morning star

 

Walt Disney's Mars and Beyond

1957 Documentary

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iEg7dF5rg8Y&feature=related

 

Von Braun about Mars

Von Braun at Johns Hopkins U. in 1975

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPYYw8Qcy-o

 

 

Ares

 

Mars

 

pic

Interiors of Earth and Mars compared

 

Cutaway image of Mars' core.

 

Mars has two moons

 

 

Mars and its two moons, Phobos and Deimos

 

 

Phobos from Mars Express

Phobos, the larger of the two moons (2010 photo)

 

 

Martian Moon Deimos from MRO

Deimos, the smaller of the two moons (2009 photo)

 

 

 

 

 

---------------

 

 

The US was the first to send a successful fly-by mission to Mars (Mariner 4 in 1965).

 

Mariner 4 (1965)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FIj7kRSBywM

Mariner 6 and 7 (1969)

Presentation by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in 2009

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFUPTtk_wRM 

 

The US was also the first to place an orbiter about Mars (with Mariner 9 in 1971).

 

Mariner 9 (1971)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wHWWCHAQg9E

The USSR was second to orbit Mars, just two weeks behind the U. S. (with Mars 2 and Mars 3).

The European Union (EU) placed an orbiter about Mars in 2004 and India in 2014. 

The USSR was the first country to land a craft on the Martian surface (with the Mars 3 mission in 1971).

However, communication with the craft was lost within seconds of landing.

The US was the first and only country to land a craft on Mars and maintain contact with it (two landers with the Viking 1 and Viking 2 missions in 1976). 

 

Viking 1 and 2 (1976)

Pre-landings documentary

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OG7VZsdz1ow

Landing

Viking I Lands on Mars, ABC News, July 20, 1976

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZjCfNvx9m8

Post-landings documentary

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWH9J6vC22Y

 

The US was the first to land and operate a rover on the Martian surface (with the Mars Pathfinder mission in 1997).

 

MADE FOR MARS - The Pathfinder

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7M7GUuTrHFc

Mars Pathfinder mission - LIVE coverage

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUaalbRC7KA

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Au-S-tjyiU

 

The US landed and operated two more surface rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, in 2004 and one more, Curiosity, in 2012.

 

Mars Explorer

 

Twin rovers land on Mars in January 2004

Simulation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_9BYSDtwRc&feature=related

 

The search for life, in the form of water, past or present, on Mars 

Documentary detailing the rover mission (2004)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bi4nMJvOeAo&feature=related

 

 

Lecture by Steve Squyers

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgrOmRQuaCY

 

                             

----------------

 

 

Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover 2011 - 2012

 

 

Launched November 2011, landed in August 2012

 

Curiosity Rover/Mars Science Laboratory ("part of the long-term robotic" NASA Mars Exploration Program) is to "assess whether Mars ever had an environment able to support small life forms called microbes." (Quotes from NASA)

 

Preview

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZixfG0mrRR0&feature=relmfu

 

 

Animation

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P4boyXQuUIw

 

 

MSL "Curiosity Rover" Media Day B-roll Release 2 (SRC-001499)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8p9YGovb_0&feature=related

 

 

Mars Curiosity Rover Launch

 

Cape Canaveral, Florida, November 26, 2011  

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmJO449R_5g

 

 

Mars Rover Curiosity landed on Mars, August 5/6, 2012

 

 

Mars rover Curiosity lands on Red Planet

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZlo0wHx9bk

 

 

NASA Mars Rover Landing:

 

Curiosity Lands, Beams Back Pictures of Mars Surface

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9oLaC1VYoTM

 

 

Curiosity Rover's 360-degree Mars View 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_dN5Ne0IH4

 

 

Update on the rover
 
September 13, 2012
 

http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/multimedia/videos/index.cfm?v=90

 

 

NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #7

 

September 21, 2012

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TF3LYtLolHA

 

 

NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #8

 

09/29/12

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MVTyRNbsqk8&feature=relmfu

 

 

NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #9 (# 10 is the same as # 9)

 

10/12/12

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1KTvs97k20

 

# 16

 

November 29, 2012

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BspOIRV_ifg

 

Curiosity's Cameras

Curiosity Rover Report

June 13, 2013

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b2rwWECbEHg

 

---------------

 

Why Mars Died and Earth Lived

Excerpt from an episode from the 2011 Cosmic Journeys series

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oC31pqk9sak

 

Water on Mars

 

NASA CONFIRMS EVIDENCE THAT LIQUID WATER FLOWS ON MARS TODAY

SEPTEMBER 28, 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nCUipx1bhWM

 

Measuring Mars' Ancient Ocean

NASA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WH8kHncLZwM

 

------------

 

Next mission to Mars in 2020

NASA ANNOUNCES ROBUST MULTI-YEAR MARS PROGRAM; NEW ROVER TO CLOSE OUT DECADE OF NEW MISSIONS

 

 

Destination Mars:

NASA's 2020 Mars Rover Science Plan

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ck-BR6hW0aY

 

 

 

---------------

 

 


Exploring the Martian Atmosphere

 

MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN)

 


MAVEN: NASA's Next Mission to Mars

NASA Goddard 

Presentation by Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN Principal Investigator, about NASA's next mission to Mars at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, September 25, 2013

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iZwChY9wrZs

 

MAVEN's Journey to Mars

MAVEN Liftoff

Atlas V Missile, Cape Canaveral, November 15, 2013

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0RB1_lZpGk

 

NASA’s MAVEN Space Probe Reaches Mars!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qylDKyN3C_U

 

MAVEN arrives at Mars

NASA

September 21, 2014

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qPD647b3HXg

 

India's Mars Mission

"India has successfully reached Mars"

Indian newscast, September 24, 2014

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OcVGgEx313Y

 

Comet flies by Mars in rare encounter

Space.com, October 19, 2014

http://www.space.com/27473-comet-siding-spring-mars-webcast.html

 

 

                          -----------

 

 

European Mars Lander Crashes

 

The Schiaparlli Mars Lander

 

Orbiter ok but Lander not

 

 

European Space Agency (ESA) Schiaparelli Mars Lander

 

BBC Breakfast

 

19 October 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQNtrji5k0w

 

 

What Happened to Europe's ExoMars Lander?

- What We Know

 

19 October 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vtNmRl3Quw

 

 

Mars landing:

What happened to the Schiaparelli probe?

 

Euronews, 19 October 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2r4GxCPuzRM

 

 

European Mars Lander's Crash Site found by NASA Probe

 

The Cosmos News

 

22 October 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=McSCXWpZT8k

 

 

 

-----------

 

 

 

Glacial Lake found under Martian South Pole

 

 

Life on Mars?

 

Italian Scientists Find Large Body of Water Under Ice Sheet Near South Pole

 

European Space Agency (ESA) 

 

CNN

 

26 July 2018

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI4k6jdqD0U

 

 

CBC

 

July 25, 2018

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d6hBHuKRw_c

 

 

Channel 4

 

July 25, 2018

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i80QXTK_mqI

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

--------------------------

 

 

 

 

Asteroid Belt
 
 
Main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
 
 
 
Asteroids - The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
 
BBC documentary
 
 
 
Ceres, the largest asteroid
 
 
 
 
Unveiling Ceres
 
Lecture by Carol Raymond with highlights 
of the Dawn mission spacecraft arrival at Ceres in 2015
 
JPL/Cal Tech
 
October 8, 2015
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
Ancient Egyptian Glass from Outer Space
 
BBC documentary
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 

First spacecraft lands on an asteroid

September 21, 2018

Japan lands two rovers on Ryuga, a one-kilometre wide asteroid

Hayabusa2 mission

Rovers 1a and 1b

Simulation and details

Report, 9/22/08

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqGxLAyjxUI

Simulation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y99Eov3LYts

 

 

 
 
 
 
------------------
 
 
 
 
 
Comet on 3 August 2014
 
 
First Landing on a Comet
 
Rosetta, an ESA mission, was launched in 2004 and went into orbit about a comet, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, in August 2014. 
 
This comet has an orbit that takes it around the sun and to a point between Earth and Jupiter.  
 
A lander, Philae, set down on the comet on November 12.
 
The lander has transmitted photos of the comet's surface.
 
It collected molecular samples from the comet surface and transmitted the data back to Earth. 
 
 
Orbit of the comet about the Sun
 
 
 
Rosetta's Jounrey
 
First craft to orbit a comet
 
E. S. A., October 31, 2014
 
 
 
 
Rosetta: Landing on a Comet
 
E. S. A., November 3, 2014
 
 
 
 
BBC News
 
Uploaded Nov. 13, 2014
 
 
 
 
Rosetta ends its mission
 
CBS News
 
30 September 2016
 
 
 

Final Touchdown
 
Rosetta spacecraft crashes into comet after 12 years
 
Russia Today (America)
 
30 September 2016
 
 

Rosetta probe collides with comet 67P, ends 12-year mission
 
Broadcast from Germany
 
30 September 2016
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
----
 
 
 

 
 
 
The Four Outer Planets
 
 
The four outer planets shown to scale, from left: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
 
 
 
The Outer Planets
 
 
 
 

Voyager: The Grand Tour

 

1990 doucmentary about Voyagers I and II probes of the Outer Planets

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WyDY--dgSe8

 
 
 

Voyages to the Outer Solar System

 

Lecture by Ian Morison, Gresham College, England, 2011

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1Ygq-SXf7Y

 
 
 
The Outer Planets
 
Episode from the documentary series The Universe
 
 
 
 
The Hunt for Ringed Planets
 
Episode from the documentary series The Universe
 
 
 
 
------
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

Summary of missions to the outer Solar System

 

System

 
 
Spacecraft
 
Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
Pioneer 10 1973 flyby
Pioneer 11 1974 flyby 1979 flyby
Voyager 1 1979 flyby 1980 flyby
Voyager 2 1979 flyby 1981 flyby 1986 flyby 1989 flyby
Galileo 19952003 orbiter;
1995, 2003 atmospheric
Ulysses 1992, 2004 gravity assist
Cassini–Huygens 2000 gravity assist 2004orbiter;
2005 Titan lander
New Horizons 2007 gravity assist 2015 flyby
Juno 2016orbiter

 

Source: Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_missions_to_the_outer_planets

 

 

 
 
 
 
-----------
 
 
 
 

Jupiter
 
Fifth planet from the sun and largest planet of the solar system
 
 
 
Zeus
 
Jupiter
 

 

Ruins of a temple of the Roman trinity   -   Jupiter, centre, and his consorts Juno and Minerva   -   in Dougga, Tunisia (photo by G. Wilson)
 
 
 
 
Jupiter has four rings
 
 
Jupiter's Rings
 
Discovered by Voyager 1 (1979)
 
NASA
 
 
 
 
 
The Great Red Spot
 
Brief NASA description  
 
 
 
 
 
Jupiter's polar auroras 
 
 
Hubble:
 
Jupiter's Ultraviolet Aurora (2007.02)
 
By NASA
 
 
 
 
Jupiter has 63 moons
 
 
The four largest moons of Jupiter, shown here to scale, were discovered by Galileo Galilei and are thus called the Galilean moons
 
The size of Jupiter's Galilean moons compared to Earth, Earth moon and other moons in the solar system
 
 
 
Two very large clusters of asteroids, called the Trojans and the Greeks, orbit LaGrange Points along Jupiter's orbit of the Sun
 
video about the hreeks and Trojans here
 
 
Fly-bys of Jupiter
 
Pioneer 10 - December 3, 1973
 
Pioneer 11 - December 4, 1974
 
Voyager 1 - March 5, 1979
 
Voyager 2 - July 9, 1979
 
 
Orbiters
 
Galileo - observations 1994 - 2003
 
 
Fly-bys
 
Ulysses - February 8, 1992 and February 2004
 
 
Cassini - December 30, 2000
 
New Horizons - February 28, 2007
 
 
Orbiters
 
New Frontiers -  
 
 
 
                            --------------
 
 
 
Pioneer 10
 
First spacecraft to travel beyond Mars; first probe of the asteroid belt and outer planets. first fly-by of Jupiter.

Launched in 1972, it traveled out of the solar system.

 

Space in the 1970s

1971 NASA film about the Pioneer 10 & Pioneer 11 space probes to Jupiter before launching

 

(2 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXiu1YggDBY

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9EL7ay4V4w

 

 

Jupiter Odyssey (CMP-243)

 

Early 1970s (1974?) NASA documentary about the Pioneer 10 spacecraft probe of the asteroid belt and Jupiter

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C8njS3ARC-E

 
 

Jupiter Odyssey

1974 NASA educational documentary about Pioneer 10 and Jupiter 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=parnMtbqobo

 

Or in 2 clips:

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7arv8z12VTA (15 min.)

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iy5c2UwXc2I (14 min.)

 
 
                      ----------------
 
 
Voyager 1
 
Composition of a series of images of Jupiter taken from Voyager 1 at one image per Jupiter day between January 6 and February 03, 1979 
from a dstance of 58 million to 31 million kilometers
 
 
NASA at Work

 

Program # 10 of 13 of the 1983 NASA educational documentary series Journey through the Solar Sytem

 

This program features a video about Jupiter after the Voyager 1 fly-by in 1979

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-QpwZuh-810

 
 
Planet Jupiter
 
1979 NASA documentary about the Voyager 1 fly-by of Jupiter
 
 
 
Voyager celebrates 35 years in space
 
NASA, JPL and Caltech
 
2012 lecture by Ed Stone
 
 
 
 
For more about Voyager 1, see Saturn below
 
 
                         ---------
 
 
Galileo
 
 
Hole in Jupiter created by the comet Shoemaker-Levy in 1994, observed by Galileo space probe
 
 
Comet Hits Jupiter - Shoemaker-Levy 9
 
Excerpts from 1994 BBC documentary
The Jupiter Collision - A Fatal Embrace
 
Animated Guide
 
 
 
On Jupiter

Documentary about the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collision with Jupiter in 1994, observed by the space probe Galileo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nR2THvVZx0I

 
 
 
                     ------------
 
 
 
Ulysses
 
 
Ulysses - A Solar Odyssey
 
NASA JPL Solar Astronomy Probe
 
Pre-1990 launch documentary (1989)  
 
 
 
The Ulysses legacy
 
ca. 2008 documentary
 
 
Ulysses Encounter with Jupiter
 
 
 
Ulysses Flyby am Jupiter
 
 
 
                        ---------
 
 
Cassini
 
 

Cassini at Jupiter

 

2000 - 2001

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6b3lk599x4

 
 
                      -------------
 
 
 
New Horizons 
 
 
 
                    ---------------
 
 
 
New Frontiers   -  Juno
 
NASA's New Frontiers mission to Jupiter, Juno, named after the goddess and consort of Jupiter in Greco-Roman mythology, was 
launched from Cape Canaveral in 2011. It traveled five years to reach Jupiter in July 2016 and entered polar orbit for one year of scientific study of Jupiter's composition, its gravity and magnetic fields and it polar magnetosphere.
 
How was Jupiter formed? How deep and how fast are its winds? How much water does its deep atmosphere hold? How is the planet's mass distributed? Does the planet have a rock core?
 
 
Juno Mission overview -  
 
Unlocking Jupiter's Mysteries
 
 
 
Juno Mission Launched: 5 Aug 2011
 
Kurdistan Planetarium
 
 
 
Liftoff - Juno spacecraft on it's way to Jupiter
 
 
 
Launch Replays of Atlas V (551) Carrying Juno Spacecraft
 
 
 
Juno spacecraft trajectory animation
 
By NASA
 
 
 
Simulation of What Juno Will 'See' From Jupiter Orbit
 
By NASA
 
 
 
Juno spacecraft Jupiter arrival animation
 
By NASA
 
 
 
Mission Juno
 
Documentary about Juno's projected probe of the gas giant in 2016
 
 
 
Juno arrives on Jupiter
 
July 4, 2016
 
 
NASA
 
 
 
DNews
 
 
 
 
-------------
 
 
 

 
 
 

Saturn

Saturn

 

Inside Saturn

 

Traveller's Tales

 

Episode 6 of Carl Sagan’s 1980 documentary series Cosmos

 

First half of documentary describes the Dutch astronomer and mathematician, Christiaan Huygens; the second half describes the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn in 1979

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7Qs3iXqgzs

 

Documentary film about Saturn 

First part only

Narrated by Patrick Stewart

c. 2000 (8 min.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cL2QrfxrgBI

 

 

 

 

Saturn's Restless Rings

 

Results from the Cassini Mission

 

2009 lecture

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5zcrEze8L4

 

 

The Cassini Huygens Mission

 

1997 - 2005

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=14QmdnQI830

 

 

What Huygens Saw on Titan

 

New Image Processing

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9L471ct7YDo

 

 

Destination: Titan

 

2011 documentary about the exploration of Saturn's biggest moon, Titan (59 min.)

 

About the Huygens probe of Titan, launched in 1997 and landed in 2005

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uE5POhMnN78

 

 

Cassini: Epic Journey at Saturn

 

Public talk about the Cassini mission's final year (2017)

 

Earl Maize, Cassini Project Manager, JPL

 

Linda Spilker, Cassini Project Scientist, JPL

 

22 September 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YchCuFvyAZ4

 

 

Saturn

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Carolin Crawford, Michele Dougherty and Andrew Coates

 

14 January 2016

 

BBC asks the listener to install a Flash Player to hear the programme. Try Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. Otherwise, the progamme can be downlaoded quickly directly and quickly from the programme's webpage.

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06vmr1m

 

or

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/player/b06vmr1m

 

 

 

------------------- 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Uranus
 
 
 
 
Inside Uranus
 
 
Voyager visits Uranus
 
Excerpt from 1990 Nova documentary narrated by Patrick Stewart
 
 
 
Uranus
 
Episode from Space School
 
 
 
 
 
 
----------------
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Neptune

Neptune with its 14 moons

File:Neptunian rings scheme 2.svg

Neptune with its rings                       Source: Fama Clamosa

Neptune's core

Neptune's core

 

Neptune with his chariot (200s AD), Tunisia

 

Neptune Calming the Waves
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neptune Calming the Waves  -  marble

statue by Adam Lambert-Sigisbert in

1737 (Louvre)

 

 

 

 

Neptune

 

Space School

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EmUvTH7sveg

 

 

A Brief History of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 

 

(14:51)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9SjjcHd1Ec

 

 

Voyager 2 at Neptune

 

Voyager's Last Encounter

 

1989 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPL CalTech (3:24)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=COI5LBpvDyU

 

 

Neptune - Voyager's Last Journey

 

Episode from the 1989 series The Sky at Night as Voyager approached Neptune (34:08)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQFBBsrIVCU

 

 

 

 
 
 
 

 
--------------
 
 
 
Halley's Comet
 
Halley's Comet in 1986
 
 
 
Halley's Comet's retrograde orbit 
 
Halley's Comet's orbit is inclined 18° to the ecliptic and most of it is below (or south of) the ecliptic
 
 
Brief Intro
 
 
 
The nucleus of Halley's Comet photographed by the Giotto spacecraft, March 14, 1986
 
 
Halley's Comet
 
Documentary about Halley's Comet and the ESA Giotto program by the ESA and the BBC's "Horizon".

 

ESA sent a spacecraft to within 600 km. of Halley's Comet in 1986.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eI-W8ss4x5I

   

Halley's Comet Orbital Path

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=L1SycRpYH3k

 

 

Giotto fly-by of Halley's Comet (March 14, 1986

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IHfNK2JLrVw

 

 

Giotto: Halley's Comet fly-by animation (March 14, 1986)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUzn_BtldUI

 
 
 
 
Halley's Comet was observed in 1066   -   shortly before the Norman invasion of England   -  and recounted on the Bayeux Tapestry.
 
In the Middle Ages, the appearance of a comet was considered a bad omen. But Duke William of Normandy believed the comet portended victory. 
He defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings and took the crown from the defeated king of England. Thus began the Norman Conquest of England.  
 
 
 
 
 
---
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 

Pluto
 
NASA Photo, July 15, 2015
 
 
Pluto-Charon of the Kuiper Belt
 
Pluto and the biggest of its five known moons, Charon
 
Pluto and four of its five moons
 
Pluto compared to the four inner planets
 
 
Pluto's orbit about the Sun  
 
 
Pluto's orbit about the Sun takes it well into the Kuiper Belt
 
Pluto's orbit about the Sun and through the Kuiper Belt          Source: Thinglink
 
 
 
Discovered in 1930, Pluto was believed to be the long-sought "Planet X"  -  the ninth planet of the the solar system. However, it was eventually determined that Pluto was too small to be a planet. Today Pluto and the biggest of its four known moons, Charon, discovered in 1978, are identified as a double or binary dwarf planet system and the largest object in the Kuiper Belt.
 
 
Beyond Our Earth
 
 
 
 
Pluto, reclassified a dwarf plant, compared in size with
other dwarf plants or Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs).
Eris appers to be larger.
 
Orbits of Pluto and Eris
 
Orbits of TNOs
 
 
Passport to Pluto
 
2005 documentary    -    before launch of the latest probe New Horizons 
 
(5 clips)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
New Horizons probe to Pluto
 
 
Exploring Pluto and Charon
 
NASA's "New Horzions", launched in 2006, to fly by Pluto and Charon in 2015
 
Launch
 
 
and
 
 
 
New Horizons
 
Orbiter Space Flight Simulator
 
 
 
New Horizons:
 
Exploring the Solar System's Frontier
 
Lecture by Alan Stern, June 2007
 
 
 
Passport to Pluto and Beyond

Documentary (2007) (45:31)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tu0ql1ARd8

(45:41)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lyTaTeYdcxs 

 

Pluto, Eris and Dwarf Planets of Outer Solar System

Lecture by Mike Brown (discoverer of Eris) of Caltech, March 2007
 

 

Destination:
 
Pluto and Beyond
 
Brief documentary (2009) 
 
 
 
New Horizons Pluto Mission
 
Lecture by Alan Stern at the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence Institute (SETI) in Astrobiology (Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology [URSA]) in January 2011
 

 

Bastille Day   -   July 14, 2015  
 
New Horizons to fly-by Pluto
 
 
On Pluto's Doorstep
 
Pluto on the Horizon   
 
Anticipating our First Encounter with the Double Planet
 
Lecture by Mark Showalter (January 28, 2015)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfODJpfS0fo
 
 
New Horizons Pluto Fly-By in Jeapordy
 
NASA lost contact with the craft for 90 minutes on July 4. The craft is on auto mode and might not be able to gather and transmit data during its fly-by.
 
 
 
New Horizons is Going Dark for Flyby
 
Pluto in a Minute

 

NASA, July 13

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nl5DEmMDMHU

 

 

NASA’s New Horizon probe makes historic Pluto flyby

RT

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jWjWi1tU5ZE

 

  

NASA Releases First Images From Pluto Flyby

July 15, 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6tX4R0yLIM

 

  

Mountains on Pluto

 

NASA

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iyd-gh2rhM

 

 

What We've Learned from the Pluto Flyby!

 
Episode from SciShowSpace
 
 
 

Pluto Close-Up displays the most details thus far
 
Taken 23 minutes before closest approach (July 14, 2015)
 
Uploaded May 31, 2016
 
 
 

Chasing Pluto

NOVA documentary (2015)

Entire mission from launch to fly-by (51:51)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gq4JHZTG7Mw 

 
 
 
Note: Ceres is in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Kuiper Belt
 
Solar System (including Pluto) within the Kuiper Belt 
 
Kuiper Belt
 
 
 

 

Kuiper Belt and the Tenth Planet Discovery

Lecture by Mike Brown

Kahilu Theatre in Waimea on Hawaii (the biggest of the Hawaiian Islands)

September 15, 2011

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlyyL2kfmwE

                                                            

The Kuiper Belt and its Implications 

Lecture by Jane Luu at the Royal Society in London

20 November 2013

(62:35)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwmCW6eWCRg

 
 
Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Io, Europa & Triton
 
Episode from the Universe documentary series
 
 
 
 

New Horizons

The Exploration of the Pluto System and the Kuiper Belt Beyond 

Lecture by Alan Stern

2016

(54:22) (Lecture begins at the 08:45 mark)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-NXh-BPnpM

 

The Exploration of Pluto by New Horizons

Lecture by Alan Stern

2016 NASA Ames Summer Lecture Series

(55:51)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dq6CoSXR6co

 

The Exploration of Pluto

Lecture by Alan Stern

2016

(1:22:14)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5JC_r1K7xQo

 

The Pluto System as Explored by New Horizons

Lecture by Alan Stern

2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts

(49:29)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ard7cczf5lI

 
 
The Kuiper Belt
 
Discussion of the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg
 
With guests Carolin Crawford, Monica Grady and Stephen Lowry
 
2 March 2017
 
 
 
 
 
 
       ----------------------------
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Sedna
 
 
 
 
 
 

                     
 

 
 
        ---------------
 
 
 
And Planet X?
 
 
A new 9th planet for the solar system?
 
Science Magazine
 
 
 
A New Ninth Planet May Have Been Detected!
 
CNN
 
 

Scientists may have found "true" ninth planet

CBSN

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGNSAg62bAU

 

Evidence of a Ninth Planet

Caltech

 
 
 
Did we just find the Ninth Planet?
 
DNews
 
 
 
 
A Ninth Planet may have been found & . . .  
 
Beyond Science
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
------------
 
 
 
 
Heliosphere
 
 
 
Bow shock theory has been abandoned
 
Heliosphere traveling through interstellar space
 
 
 
 
 
The Heliosphere
 
Episode 4 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? by David Butler
 
 
 
 
 
Interstellar Space
 
 
The Sun, Solar System and Heliosphere traveling through interstellar space; Voyager 1, the first space probe to enter interstellar space (September 2013); and Voyager 2 exiting the heliosphere
 
Voyager 1 traveling through the Heliosheath in 2012
 
 
For latest conception of the heliosphere traveling through interstellar space, view this by NASA:
 
 
 
 
Voyager 1 was launched from Cape Canaveral a fortnight after Voyager 2 in September 1977

Voyager 1 and 2 explored Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and 48 of their moons; their rings; and magnetic fields.

 
,
Testing Voyager 1 before launch
 

 

Voyager I exits solar system, enters interstellar space, September 13, 2013:

 

125.3 Astronomical Units (AU) from the Sun

 

JPL video:

 

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/video/index.php?id=1248

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

                        ------

 

 

 

Oort Cloud
 
 
Oort Cloud surrounds Kuiper Belt (sketch not to proper scale; Oort is actually much bigger; see below)
 
The Sun and planets plus Pluto (Our Solar System) within the Kuiper Belt; the Kuiper Belt within the Oort Cloud
 
 
Distances from the Sun
 
The distance from the Sun to the Earth is 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)
 
 
The Oort Cloud
 
Ep. 292 of the weekly Google + Monday show Astronomy Cast with Pamela Gay, U. of S. Illinois, and Fraser Cain, Universe Today 
(2013)
 
 
(51 min. 44 sec. - starts at the 11:51 mark)
 
or
 
 
(46 min. 10 sec. - starts at the 4:57 mark)
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
The Comet's Tale
 
2007 BBC documentary (59:05)
 
 
 
 
Comets
 
Discussion on In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (BBC Jan. 17, 2013)
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Tyche
 
 
 
 
Astronomers believe that comets originate in the Oort Cloud.
 
In 1999, three astrophysicists theorized that long-period comets, which take thousands to millions of years to complete an orbit, are influenced by a giant gas planet in the outer reaches of the Oort Cloud. They call this planet Tyche. It has not been been observed, however.   
 
 
 
 
 
 
----------------
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

------------ 

 

 

 

 

 

Star Identification (1942)

US Navy film to assist training in navigation

(2 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vG3U8GD_So

 

or

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZ3IJRgr9v4

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhD3lMEXizU

 

 

Stargazing

 

A Graphic Guide to the Heavens

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80A03DfX1Ks

 

 

 

 

The next star out  - 

Alpha Centauri three-star System

 

Two stars seen above, Alpha Centauri Alpha and Alpha Centauri Beta, form a binary star system. With a third star, Proximo Centauri, they might form a three-star system. The three stars are the closest stars to our own star   -   the sun. Proximo Centuari is the closet to us. It is 4.24 light years away. Alpha Centauri Alpha and Alpha Centuari Beta are 4.37 light years from us. Planets might orbit the binary star system or orbit each star.

Alpha Centauri appears near the edge (possible edge) of the Oort Cloud, on the right in the illustration

 

 

 

Space exploration

Destination the Alpha Centauri star system

A short video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hxWBOQAuuQQ

 

Voyage to Pandora:

First Interstellar Space Flight

Episode about Alpha Centauri from the Cosmic Journeys documentary series

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPjXxKpM4DM

 

                                       ------------------------------

 

 

The Lives of Stars

Episode 9 of the documentary Cosmos, A Personal Voyage with Carol Sagan (1980)

Includes 1987 update

Atoms - the sub-atomic particles of electrons, protons and neutrons - the chemical elements - stars - red giants- supernovae - white dwarfs - neutron stars - pulsars - black holes - radioactivity, cosmic rays and gravity curving spacetime

Cosmos Update (1990): the supernova SN 1987A and neutrino astronomy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcQIyRpxils

or

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X7L6SZPxgNg

 

                              Black Holes

 

Black holes are theoretical.

There are at least two types of black holes.

1. Stellar black holes

Very big stars, at least 20 times the mass of our sun, collapse and become black holes

2. Super-massive black holes

Black holes exist at the center of galaxies.

3. Miniature black holes

(See the section on black holes following the section on galaxies below. )

 

Black Holes, Dark Energy and the Age of the Universe

 

Lecture 17 of 18 of the course Physics 20B. Cosmology by James Bullock at the University of Calidornia - Irvine campus in 2013

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWCQk3ckOMA

 

Life of Stars

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2003)

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548w8

 

 

--------

 

 
 
The Sun and the nearest stars
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
Exoplanets
 
 
 
Weirdest Planets
 
2010 National Geographic documentary recounts the discovery of the first exoplant, 51 Pegasi b,, nicknamed Bellerophon, in 1992   -   the fist time a planet revolving about another star was observed. And subsequent discoveries.
 
 
 
Kepler Telescope
 
 
NASA Kepler Mission Launch
 
NASAtelevision
 
Launched March 9, 2009
 
 
 
Picture or Photo of 3d small person speaks at the podium. 3D image. On a white background.
 
Planets and Exoplanets
 
David Jewitt on our solar system and systems of other stars (November 2010)
 
 
 
 
The Quest for Other Worlds Like Earth
 
Lecture about the Kepler Mission, launched in 2009, and the search for Exoplanets by Thomas Gautier of JPL (2012?)
 
 
Update 1 - The Kepler Mission
 
An update on July 2, 2012 to the course, 
Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (Astr 160), at Yale U., Spring 2007, with Charles Bailyn
 
The Kepler mission discovered thousands of new exoplanets.
 
Yale U. site:
 
 
Transcript:
 
 
 
Four lectures (# 4 - # 7) on exoplanets from the course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (Astr 160) with Charles Bailyn, Spring 2007, Yale U.
 
Lecture # 4 - Discovering Exoplanets: Hot Jupiters
 
Theory of Planetary Formation   -   Observing Moving Exoplanets and Stars   -   Doppler Shift   -   51 Pegasus and "Hot Jupiters"
 
Yale U. site:
 
 
 
Lecture 5 - Planetary Transits
 
A Case for Pluto? Interactions between Culture and Science   -   Velocity and Center of Mass   -   Observations of Hot Jupiters and the Selection Effect   -   Hot Jupiters - Double or Pulsating Stars?   -   Measuring Doppler Shifts to Understand Hot Jupiters

Yale U.:

http://oyc.yale.edu/astronomy/astr-160/lecture-5

 
Lecture 6 - Microlensing, Astrometry and Other Methods
 
Complexities and New Observations on Hot Jupiters   -   Discovery of Planetary Transits   -   Limits of Finding Planets Directly from Transits   -   Metallicity and Planetary Migration   -   Consequences and Limits of the Idea of Planetary Migration

Yale U. site:

http://oyc.yale.edu/astronomy/astr-160/lecture-6

 

Lecture 7 - Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

Calculating Planetary Density from Transits and Doppler Shifts   -   Astrometry to Assess Planetary Position   -   Summary of Planetary Identification Methods   -   Kepler, SIM, and TPF

Yale U. site:

http://oyc.yale.edu/astronomy/astr-160/lecture-7

 

Exoplanets
 
Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, October 3, 2013
 
 
 
 
Habitable planet found orbiting Proxima Centauri
 
Proxima Centauri b
 
Press Conference at ESO HQ in Garching, Germany, 24 August 2016
 
 
Proxima b orbiting round nearest star could be Earth-like
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
Milky Way Galaxy
 

(Our) Milky Way Galaxy

 

Our solar system in the Milky Way
 
Our solar system in the Milky Way Galaxy
 
Milky Way and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) (a satellite galaxy)
 
The Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) (satellite galaxies)
 
2002 National Geographic chart of the Milky Way 
 
The Milky Way (center) and Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) (far right) viewed from Earth
 
 

Galileo and the Milky Way

 

Episode # 70 of the documentary series Great Moments in Science and Technology

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suDbYWnm1os

 
 
Journey through the Milky Way
 
2011 National Geographic documentary film about the Milky Way and recent discoveries and theories
 
 
 
 
The Mystery of the Milky Way
 
Part 1 of the 2010 Nova documentary series Hunting the Edge of Space
 
About telescopes from Galileo to the present
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 

Hubble Space Telescope & the formation of the Galaxy

 

Documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ac9Cr6bf-mg

 
 
 
The Milky Way
 
Episode 10 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
 
 
 

lecture hall, FBAUL

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way
 
Lecture 11 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Milky Way and its satellite galaxies form part of the Local Group of Galaxies
 
 
 
 
Our Local Group of Galaxies
 
 
The Milky Way Galaxy and Our Local Group of 54 galaxies; the three largest galaxies in the Local group are Andromeda, the largest; then the Milky Way; and Triangulum, the third largest; most of the other galaxies rotate around the three largest galaxies 
 
 
 
 
Andromeda
 
Biggest galaxy of Our Local Group of Galaxies
 
 
The Andromeda Galaxy is the largest galaxy in Our Local Group. It is 2.5 million light years from Earth. Like the Milky Way, it is a spiral galaxy.
 
 
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 - 1953),
American astronomer. 
 
In 1923, Hubble determined that
Andromeda was not an object within
the Milky Way, as commonly believed
at the time, but another galaxy. Until
then, it was generally assumed that
the Milky Way was the only galaxy and
that it contained the entire universe.
 
Hubble also proved the existence of
other galaxies beyond the Milky Way.
  
 

The Ever Expanding Universe

Part 2 of the 2010 Nova documentary series Hunting the Edge of Space
 
Recounts the discovery of Andromeda as a distant galaxy separate from the Milky Way (HD 1080p)
 
 
 
Speaker Drawing - Line drawing of speaker with podium
 

Discovering the Galaxy

Lecture 12 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5oMHmDzpsdw

 

Most of Andromeda's satellite galaxies lie along its polar plane
 
Source: NASA, ESA et al
 
Source: NASA, ESA et al
 
The Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy will eventually collide in four billion years
 
 
 
Colliding Galaxies
 
Episode 15 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
 
 
 
Our Local Group of Galaxies includes the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies and the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellite galaxies.
 
 
 
 
Andromeda and the Local Group
 
Episode 11 of the 2013 series How Far Away is It? with David Butler
 
 
 
3d person on the tribune - 3d person speaking from a tribune...
 

Understanding Galaxies

Lecture 14 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOvvn1LDSfA

 
 
 
 

Galaxies

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2006)

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003c1cn

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Quasars and Black Holes
 
 
 
Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (Quasar) and Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The first black hole discovered
 
location of Cygnus X-1
Cygnus (Swan) Constellation
 
 
Cygnus X-1 is one of two stars in a binary star system (indicated by a red box in NASA photo below, left); astronomers suspect that Cygnus X-1 is a collapsed massive star   -   stellar-mass black hole   -   and sucking in its massive companion blue star (as shown in the NASA illustration below, right).
Cygnus X-1
Cygnus X-1 - A Black Hole
 
The first discovery of a black hole, in 1964 
 
 
 
 
 
Black Holes, Dark Energy and the Age of the Universe
 
Lecture 17 of 18 of the course Physics 20B. Cosmology by James Bullock at the University of Calidornia - Irvine campus in 2013
 
 

Podium with mic Stock Vector - 21059726

Introduction to Black Holes
 
Lecture # 8 of the Astronomy course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (ASTR 160) by Charles Bailyn, Yale U., Spring semester 2007

- Introduction
- Escape Velocity
- Defining Black Holes and the Schwarzschild Radius
- Gravity and Pressure in the Evolution of Stars
- From Electron Degeneracy Pressure to the Chandrasekhar Limit
- Neutron Stars
- Conclusion

Yale U. website:
 
 
You Tube:
 
 
Transcript:
 
 
 
 
Continued:
 
Special and General Relativity
 
Lecture # 9 of the Astronomy course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (ASTR 160) by Charles Bailyn, Yale U., Spring semester 2007
 
- Event Horizon
- Singularity and Clarifications on Black Holes
- Locating Black Holes
- Introduction to Special and General Relativity

Yale U.:
 
 
You Tube:
 

Transcript:
 
 
 
The Quasar and the Death Star
 
2009 documentary
 
 
 
 
Supermassive Black Hole in the Milky Way Galaxy
 
2008 documentary about the discovery of the Black Hole in the Milky Way
 
 
oe
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
Black Holes
 
Episode from the documentary series How the Universe Works

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJxUHCndt4Y

 
 
 
BLACK HOLES - WHAT ARE THEY?
 
Documentary
 
 
 
 
Monster Black Holes
 
National Geographic Naked Science documentary
 
 
 
Cosmic Monsters
 
2010 National Geographic documentary
 
 
 
 
 
Swallowed by a Black Hole
 
Horizon documentary
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
 
Black Holes
 
No need to be afraid!
 
Lecture by Ian Morison
 
 
 
 

Black Holes

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2001)

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547f4

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
Spitzer Space Telescope
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Local Galaxy Volume
 
Episode 12 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
 
Images of other galaxies taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, launched in 2003
 
 
 
 

 
----------------------
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
The Virgo or Local Supercluster
 
The massive Virgo Cluster of some 2,000 galaxies is 60 mly away from us.  
 
 
 
 
Virgo Supercluster
 
Episode 13 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
 
 
 
A nearby group of galaxies, like our own Local Group, called Hikson, 60 million light years away 
 
 

Our galaxy is one galaxy among a cluster of galaxies, like the Hercules galaxy cluster of some 200 galaxies (above), about 500 mly away, in the Hercules Supercluster

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
Local Superclusters
 
Our Local Galaxy Group and many other groups of galaxies 
are drawn to the more massive Virgo Cluster to form the Virgo Supercluster of Galaxies. 
 
The Virgo Supercluster of Galaxies is one of many superclusters forming a cluster of superclusters. 
 
 
 
 
Lectern 8
Universe of Galaxies
 
Lecture 15 of 18 by by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013
 
 
 
Local Superclusters
 
Episode 14  of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Local Superclusters form filaments
 
 
The Cosmos
 
Episode 16 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
 
 
 
Credits and Research Topics
 
Episode 17 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 
-----------------------------
 
 
 
 
 
The Hubble telescope, launched in 1990, orbits the Earth above the atmosphere, which allows it to take clearer photos of objects in outer space 
 
View of deep space from the Hubble Space Telescope. In fact, Hubble records images in black and white (gray scale). Color is added by technicians at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland
  
 
 
How the Hubble Space Telescope's color images are created
 
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
 
Short explanation (10:12)
 
 
 
 
Make Your Own Color Hubble Image

Hubble's Heritage

Lecture by Ian Morison at Gresham College (2011)
 
Lecture begins with an update on the Kepler mission and the discovery of exoplanets; then a description of the life of Edwin Hubble and the Hubble Telescope
 
 
 

Discovery STS 031

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Launch

(1990)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaSelAjgUHs (Removed from You Tube)

 

1990: STS-31 Discovery, Hubble Space Telescope (NASA)

Mission narrated by the space shuttle astronauts

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40n2Cg8pQpA 

 

1990 Space Shuttle Discovery STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope

CNN Report

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jrFwK3bVUPk

 

STS-125 Crew launches Hubble

05/19/09

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7o7lyjajIw

 

Hubble - 15 Years of Discovery

NASA documentary (2005)
 
 
 
 
The story of the Hubble Space Telescope
 
 
 
 
Hubble's Amazing Universe
 
National Geographic documentary (2010?)
 
 
 
 
 
Hubble Space Telescope
 
The best Images from over two decades in orbit
 
 
 
 
Hubble Telescope Replacement:
 
The James Webb Space Telescope
 
 
 
 
 
                      -----------
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Journey to the Edge of the Universe
 
Documentary imagines a trip to the planets, beyond our solar system and galaxy . . . )