Oliver's Site, Page 35. Outer Space

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Oliver's Site
Table of Contents | 1. Earth | 2. The Origin of Life and Evolution of Man | 3. Civilisation | 4. Fertile Crescent | 5. Egypt | 6. Indus Valley | 7. Yellow River (Haung He/Huang Ho) | 8. Hittites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians | 9. New World | 10. Greeks and Persians | 11. Rome ( - B. C. - A. D. 96) | 12. Saul of Tarsus | 13. Rome ( - A. D. 275) | 14. Rome and Byzantium (Nova Roma) | 15. Islam | 16. Charlemagne | 17. Vikings | 18. Turks, Crusaders, Mongols, Moors, Explorers and Conquistadors | 19. Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment (-1700s) | 20. Mid-1700s - early 1900s | 21. The Great War | 22. Inter-War Years | 23. The War in Europe and Africa | 24. Second World War | 25. War in the Pacific | 26. Defeating the Axis in Europe and Africa | 27. End of Japanese Imperialism | 28. Ending the War | 29. Conquest of Space | 30. Averting Nuclear War | 31. End of Empire | 32. Man on the Moon | 33. Arms Race and Limitation | 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain | 35. Outer Space | 37. | 42.

Continued from previous page, 34. Lifting the Iron Curtain


35. Outer Space


Oliver's Site (continued)

This is page 35 of Oliver's Site: 

Outer Space

To return to home page: http://members.tripod.com/chanyut_1/oliverssite/




Our Star  -   Our Sun
The Sun

Ra, Egyptian sun god, in one of several forms, with sundisk on his head 


Greek Sun god Helius with chariot drwn by four horses, painted on an Athenian jar, ca. 400s B. C.  Called Helios by Romans.  


Secrets of the Sun
Nova documentary
The Solar Dynamics Observatory
The Sun Up Close and Personal
Dean Pesnell, Project Scientist for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

Exploring Space Lecture Series
National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC., March 24, 2011



The Sun

Discusion on the BBC weekly radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, July 10, 2014





A space probe of the Sun luanched by NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Research Council of Canada in 1990. Mission completed in 2008.
Ulysses - A Solar Odyssey
NASA JPL Solar Astronomy Probe
Pre-1990 launch documentary (1989)  
The Ulysses legacy
Documentary (c. 2008)

Our Solar System
8 main planets
- 4 inner (terrestial) planets
and the asteroids
- 4 outer planets
- - 2 gas giants
- - 2 ice giants
Kuiper Belt
Oord Belt (Cloud)

Solar System
Heliosphere pic here

Sun, Planets. Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud


The Structure of the Solar System



Solar System

Our Solar System and the Pluto Problem


Lecture # 3 of astr 160: Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics by Charles Bailyn, Professor of Astronomy and Physics, Yale U., Spring 2007  


Conservation of Momentum in Exoplanets   -   Inner and Outer Solar System Objects  -   Kuiper Belt Objects and Oort Cloud   -   Classification and Interpretation of Celestial Objects


Go to: Inner and Outer Solar System Objects at the 14:02 mark


Yale U.:




You Tube:





The Planets

Discussion on the BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, May 27, 2004



How the Solar system was made




The Solar System

Episode 3 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? by David Butler 



Searching for Life Beyond Earth

Finding Life Beyond Earth

PBS/NOVA documentary, 2011 

Searching for life on Mars, Saturn's moons . . .





The Planets, Op. 32

Gustav Holst (1914 - 1916)

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra

1. Mars, the Bringer of War
2. Venus, the Bringer of Peace
3. Mercury, the Winged Messenger
4. Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity
5. Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age
6. Uranus, the Magician
7. Neptune, the Mystic



Coro y Orquesta Sinfónica de Galicia (2014)








The Four Inner Planets
The scale of the four inner planets compared: from left to right, above, are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
Exploring Space
The Sun and Inner Planets  -   
Mercury Venus Earth and Mars
Voice and music are on separate channels, so music can be turned off

Mercury, closest planet to the Sun 
Planet Mercury
Episode from the documentery series Space School
Eliptical orbit, left, and precession of perihelion, right
Mariner 10 made three fly-bys of Mercury between March
1974 and March 1975
Mariner 10 photographed surface of Mercury in 1974 and 1975.
Mercury: Exploration of a Planet
1970s documentary describes Mariner 10 mission to Mercury
or, the same:
MESSENGER made three fly-bys of Mercury between January 2008 and September 2009 and entered permanent orbit around the planet in 2011
Mercury photographed by MESSENGER in 2006
Mercury photographed by MESSENGER
North polar region photographed by MESSENGER
Exploring Mercury by Spacecraft:
Third lecture
Exploring Space Lecture Series, 2011
Sean C. Solomon, Principal Investigator, MESSENGER mission, Director of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution of Washington
BepiColumbo   -   Next mission to Mercury
To be launched from Cape Canaveral in August 2015, enter Mercury orbit in January 2022 and transmit data for two years




Morning and evening star

Venus is the brightest star in the night sky

Moon and Venus in the evening

Moon and Venus in the morning


Aphrodite, Greek goddess of beauty, love, pleasure and fertility; called Venus by the Romans 


God of the Greek Myths – Aphrodite



Aphrodite   -   Greek Goddess of Love and Beauty





Venus de Milo, marble statue, carved ca. 130 to 100 B. C.,

found on the island of Milos in the Aegean in 1820, on

display in the Louvre in Paris.



Venus de Milo - ancient Greek statue




Venus di Medici



Venus Exploration



Images of Venus from Magellan and Messenger  



Earth's Evil Twin


National Geographic documentary






Return to Venus  


NASA blog 2010


1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTo-DOJhpXw


2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mNgZA2Xkx-4




The Planet Venus





Transit of Venus

Venus transiting the Sun  in 2004

HD Video of Transit of Venus 2012 Image

Venus transiting the Sun in 2012


NASA announcement



Transit of Venus


NASA description

Part 1.


Part  2.



Captain James Cook of England observes the transit of Venus from the island of Tahiti in 1769


Where is Tahiti Located?

Map of the Pacific Ocean with Tahiti


Observation of the transit of Venus from the island of Moorea

June 3, 1769



Voyages of James Cook

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg, 3 December 2015



Observation of the transit of Venus from the Hawaiian Islands




Transit of Venus

Sten Odenwald of NASA discusses the Transit of Venus that will occur on June 5, 2012, LIbrary of Congress



Views of the 2012 Transit




Kepler (Mission) Transits

Short documentary about transits of planets circling other stars as a possible indicatation of potential for life




Earth viewed from Moon
Earth's motion around the Sun
Blogger's Upload

Distances to the Sun and Moon


Section 9 of 13 of Famous Math Problems with Norman J. Wildberger (2013)



Episode 2 of How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
How distances about the Earth and to the stars are measured  

Birth of the Earth


Episode # 3 of Season # 2 from the National Geographic documentary series How the Earth was Made (2009)



The Earth's Origins


Discussion on BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, July 5, 2001







From the study of seismic waves geologists have determined that Earth has a solid inner core of iron the size of the moon (yellow) and an outer core of liquid iron mixed with other elements the size of Mars (orange).



The Earth's Core


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, April 30, 2015






Early Geology


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, April 12, 2012





History of the World in 2 Hours


2011 documentary (HD 1080p)





The Space Shuttle
Source: NASA

The Space Shuttle

British documentary


Space Stations
Source: ESA

International Space Station

First 10 Years, Next 10 Years

A history of the space stations

2010 Documentary



Exploring the International Space Station


A tour in 2014






The Moon

The moon too has a solid inner core of iron (orange) and a liquid iron outer core (yellow).



The Earth and its moon   -  a twin planet, binary planet

Moon formed from the Earth theory, captured planet theory, impact theory, double-impact theory . . .


                                                  Impact Theory


The Moon 

Discussion on BBC's In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, Nov 2, 2011 



Evolution of the Moon

NASA presentation with short tour



Origin of the Moon




Moon Origin



Did Earth Have Two Moons?

NASA presentation



The Origin of the Moon


(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-Gi1HpRAVc

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-ob3E_-ok8&feature=relmfu

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTcIZaZzsgg&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d77yP-Q2My4&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUxj46GO0uY&feature=relmfu


If we had no moon


(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wW_vmnfTeWM&feature=relmfu

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acu2zs5fKoo&feature=relmfu

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8fKubr1wro&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S53nLob2SoM&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVmdjkekAJo&feature=relmfu


The day the moon was gone


(5 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JirKUXsSLtc

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xii4HrYDxuw

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i0-CxNh3xmY&feature=relmfu

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQgV_tb5A3w&feature=relmfu

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jb2D8cq81Lc&feature=relmfu


Moon Mysteries Investigated 

National Geographic documentary 

(3 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2cV3oWvCq8

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ng9LnsHJTw&feature=relmfu 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjDUnI5i0bo&feature=relmfu


Super Moon
supermoon november 14 2016, supermoon november 14 2016 pictures, supermoon nov 2016, largest supermoon 2016, largest supermoon nov 14 2016 pictures
Comparison of the moon, at Apogee, on 22 April 2016, and at Perigee, on 14 November 2016
At 13:52 GMT on 14 November 2016, the moon was at its closest point to the earth since January 1948.
How it appeared from Australia



For more about the planet Earth, see page 1. The Universe:




Asteroid 2010 (TK7)
A Trojan Asteroid 2010 (TK7) orbiting Lagrange Point in Earth orbit 60 degress ahead of the planet
Earth Trojan asteroid, 2010 TK7
Earth's first Trojan asteroid 2010 TK7 orbit
Trojan Asteroid 2010 TK7
Earth's First Trojan Asteroid "2010 TK7"
Kurdistan Planetarium
Trojan asteroid dances ahead of the Earth
Video Guardian
PBS News Hour
July 2011
Nibiru or Trojan Asteroid caught in Orbit with Earth
2012 TV interview with Mike Brown






Mars in the fourth planet from the Sun


pic goes here


Mars is an evening star

Mars is a morning star


Walt Disney's Mars and Beyond

1957 Documentary



Von Braun about Mars

Von Braun at Johns Hopkins U. in 1975









Interiors of Earth and Mars compared


Cutaway image of Mars' core.


Mars has two moons



Mars and its two moons, Phobos and Deimos



Phobos from Mars Express

Phobos, the larger of the two moons (2010 photo)



Martian Moon Deimos from MRO

Deimos, the smaller of the two moons (2009 photo)









The US was the first to send a successful fly-by mission to Mars (Mariner 4 in 1965).


Mariner 4 (1965)


Mariner 6 and 7 (1969)

Presentation by the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in 2009



The US was also the first to place an orbiter about Mars (with Mariner 9 in 1971).


Mariner 9 (1971)


The USSR was second to orbit Mars, just two weeks behind the U. S. (with Mars 2 and Mars 3).

The European Union (EU) placed an orbiter about Mars in 2004 and India in 2014. 

The USSR was the first country to land a craft on the Martian surface (with the Mars 3 mission in 1971).

However, communication with the craft was lost within seconds of landing.

The US was the first and only country to land a craft on Mars and maintain contact with it (two landers with the Viking 1 and Viking 2 missions in 1976). 


Viking 1 and 2 (1976)

Pre-landings documentary



Viking I Lands on Mars, ABC News, July 20, 1976


Post-landings documentary



The US was the first to land and operate a rover on the Martian surface (with the Mars Pathfinder mission in 1997).


MADE FOR MARS - The Pathfinder


Mars Pathfinder mission - LIVE coverage

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUaalbRC7KA

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Au-S-tjyiU


The US landed and operated two more surface rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, in 2004 and one more, Curiosity, in 2012.


Mars Explorer


Twin rovers land on Mars in January 2004




The search for life, in the form of water, past or present, on Mars 

Documentary detailing the rover mission (2004)





Lecture by Steve Squyers








Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover 2011 - 2012



Launched November 2011, landed in August 2012


Curiosity Rover/Mars Science Laboratory ("part of the long-term robotic" NASA Mars Exploration Program) is to "assess whether Mars ever had an environment able to support small life forms called microbes." (Quotes from NASA)












MSL "Curiosity Rover" Media Day B-roll Release 2 (SRC-001499)





Mars Curiosity Rover Launch


Cape Canaveral, Florida, November 26, 2011  





Mars Rover Curiosity landed on Mars, August 5/6, 2012



Mars rover Curiosity lands on Red Planet





NASA Mars Rover Landing:


Curiosity Lands, Beams Back Pictures of Mars Surface





Curiosity Rover's 360-degree Mars View 





Update on the rover
September 13, 2012




NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #7


September 21, 2012





NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #8







NASA's Mars Curiosity Rover Report #9 (# 10 is the same as # 9)






# 16


November 29, 2012



Curiosity's Cameras

Curiosity Rover Report

June 13, 2013






Why Mars Died and Earth Lived

Excerpt from an episode from the 2011 Cosmic Journeys series



Water on Mars



SEPTEMBER 28, 2015



Measuring Mars' Ancient Ocean






Next mission to Mars in 2020




Destination Mars:

NASA's 2020 Mars Rover Science Plan









Exploring the Martian Atmosphere


MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN)


MAVEN: NASA's Next Mission to Mars

NASA Goddard 

Presentation by Bruce Jakosky, MAVEN Principal Investigator, about NASA's next mission to Mars at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, September 25, 2013



MAVEN's Journey to Mars

MAVEN Liftoff

Atlas V Missile, Cape Canaveral, November 15, 2013



NASA’s MAVEN Space Probe Reaches Mars!



MAVEN arrives at Mars


September 21, 2014



India's Mars Mission

"India has successfully reached Mars"

Indian newscast, September 24, 2014



Comet flies by Mars in rare encounter

Space.com, October 19, 2014







European Mars Lander Crashes


The Schiaparlli Mars Lander


Orbiter ok but Lander not



European Space Agency (ESA) Schiaparelli Mars Lander


BBC Breakfast


19 October 2016





What Happened to Europe's ExoMars Lander?

- What We Know


19 October 2016





Mars landing:

What happened to the Schiaparelli probe?


Euronews, 19 October 2016





European Mars Lander's Crash Site found by NASA Probe


The Cosmos News


22 October 2016










Glacial Lake found under Martian South Pole



Life on Mars?


Italian Scientists Find Large Body of Water Under Ice Sheet Near South Pole


European Space Agency (ESA) 




26 July 2018







July 25, 2018





Channel 4


July 25, 2018












Asteroid Belt
Main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
Asteroids - The Good, the Bad and the Ugly
BBC documentary
Ceres, the largest asteroid
Unveiling Ceres
Lecture by Carol Raymond with highlights 
of the Dawn mission spacecraft arrival at Ceres in 2015
JPL/Cal Tech
October 8, 2015
Ancient Egyptian Glass from Outer Space
BBC documentary

First spacecraft lands on an asteroid

September 21, 2018

Japan lands two rovers on Ryuga, a one-kilometre wide asteroid

Hayabusa2 mission

Rovers 1a and 1b

Simulation and details

Report, 9/22/08






Comet on 3 August 2014
First Landing on a Comet
Rosetta, an ESA mission, was launched in 2004 and went into orbit about a comet, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, in August 2014. 
This comet has an orbit that takes it around the sun and to a point between Earth and Jupiter.  
A lander, Philae, set down on the comet on November 12.
The lander has transmitted photos of the comet's surface.
It collected molecular samples from the comet surface and transmitted the data back to Earth. 
Orbit of the comet about the Sun
Rosetta's Jounrey
First craft to orbit a comet
E. S. A., October 31, 2014
Rosetta: Landing on a Comet
E. S. A., November 3, 2014
BBC News
Uploaded Nov. 13, 2014
Rosetta ends its mission
CBS News
30 September 2016

Final Touchdown
Rosetta spacecraft crashes into comet after 12 years
Russia Today (America)
30 September 2016

Rosetta probe collides with comet 67P, ends 12-year mission
Broadcast from Germany
30 September 2016


The Four Outer Planets
The four outer planets shown to scale, from left: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
The Outer Planets

Voyager: The Grand Tour


1990 doucmentary about Voyagers I and II probes of the Outer Planets




Voyages to the Outer Solar System


Lecture by Ian Morison, Gresham College, England, 2011



The Outer Planets
Episode from the documentary series The Universe
The Hunt for Ringed Planets
Episode from the documentary series The Universe


Summary of missions to the outer Solar System



Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto
Pioneer 10 1973 flyby
Pioneer 11 1974 flyby 1979 flyby
Voyager 1 1979 flyby 1980 flyby
Voyager 2 1979 flyby 1981 flyby 1986 flyby 1989 flyby
Galileo 19952003 orbiter;
1995, 2003 atmospheric
Ulysses 1992, 2004 gravity assist
Cassini–Huygens 2000 gravity assist 2004orbiter;
2005 Titan lander
New Horizons 2007 gravity assist 2015 flyby
Juno 2016orbiter


Source: Wikipedia





Fifth planet from the sun and largest planet of the solar system


Ruins of a temple of the Roman trinity   -   Jupiter, centre, and his consorts Juno and Minerva   -   in Dougga, Tunisia (photo by G. Wilson)
Jupiter has four rings
Jupiter's Rings
Discovered by Voyager 1 (1979)
The Great Red Spot
Brief NASA description  
Jupiter's polar auroras 
Jupiter's Ultraviolet Aurora (2007.02)
Jupiter has 63 moons
The four largest moons of Jupiter, shown here to scale, were discovered by Galileo Galilei and are thus called the Galilean moons
The size of Jupiter's Galilean moons compared to Earth, Earth moon and other moons in the solar system
Two very large clusters of asteroids, called the Trojans and the Greeks, orbit LaGrange Points along Jupiter's orbit of the Sun
video about the hreeks and Trojans here
Fly-bys of Jupiter
Pioneer 10 - December 3, 1973
Pioneer 11 - December 4, 1974
Voyager 1 - March 5, 1979
Voyager 2 - July 9, 1979
Galileo - observations 1994 - 2003
Ulysses - February 8, 1992 and February 2004
Cassini - December 30, 2000
New Horizons - February 28, 2007
New Frontiers -  
Pioneer 10
First spacecraft to travel beyond Mars; first probe of the asteroid belt and outer planets. first fly-by of Jupiter.

Launched in 1972, it traveled out of the solar system.


Space in the 1970s

1971 NASA film about the Pioneer 10 & Pioneer 11 space probes to Jupiter before launching


(2 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zXiu1YggDBY

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h9EL7ay4V4w



Jupiter Odyssey (CMP-243)


Early 1970s (1974?) NASA documentary about the Pioneer 10 spacecraft probe of the asteroid belt and Jupiter




Jupiter Odyssey

1974 NASA educational documentary about Pioneer 10 and Jupiter 



Or in 2 clips:

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7arv8z12VTA (15 min.)

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iy5c2UwXc2I (14 min.)

Voyager 1
Composition of a series of images of Jupiter taken from Voyager 1 at one image per Jupiter day between January 6 and February 03, 1979 
from a dstance of 58 million to 31 million kilometers
NASA at Work


Program # 10 of 13 of the 1983 NASA educational documentary series Journey through the Solar Sytem


This program features a video about Jupiter after the Voyager 1 fly-by in 1979



Planet Jupiter
1979 NASA documentary about the Voyager 1 fly-by of Jupiter
Voyager celebrates 35 years in space
NASA, JPL and Caltech
2012 lecture by Ed Stone
For more about Voyager 1, see Saturn below
Hole in Jupiter created by the comet Shoemaker-Levy in 1994, observed by Galileo space probe
Comet Hits Jupiter - Shoemaker-Levy 9
Excerpts from 1994 BBC documentary
The Jupiter Collision - A Fatal Embrace
Animated Guide
On Jupiter

Documentary about the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collision with Jupiter in 1994, observed by the space probe Galileo


Ulysses - A Solar Odyssey
NASA JPL Solar Astronomy Probe
Pre-1990 launch documentary (1989)  
The Ulysses legacy
ca. 2008 documentary
Ulysses Encounter with Jupiter
Ulysses Flyby am Jupiter

Cassini at Jupiter


2000 - 2001



New Horizons 
New Frontiers   -  Juno
NASA's New Frontiers mission to Jupiter, Juno, named after the goddess and consort of Jupiter in Greco-Roman mythology, was 
launched from Cape Canaveral in 2011. It traveled five years to reach Jupiter in July 2016 and entered polar orbit for one year of scientific study of Jupiter's composition, its gravity and magnetic fields and it polar magnetosphere.
How was Jupiter formed? How deep and how fast are its winds? How much water does its deep atmosphere hold? How is the planet's mass distributed? Does the planet have a rock core?
Juno Mission overview -  
Unlocking Jupiter's Mysteries
Juno Mission Launched: 5 Aug 2011
Kurdistan Planetarium
Liftoff - Juno spacecraft on it's way to Jupiter
Launch Replays of Atlas V (551) Carrying Juno Spacecraft
Juno spacecraft trajectory animation
Simulation of What Juno Will 'See' From Jupiter Orbit
Juno spacecraft Jupiter arrival animation
Mission Juno
Documentary about Juno's projected probe of the gas giant in 2016
Juno arrives on Jupiter
July 4, 2016





Inside Saturn


Traveller's Tales


Episode 6 of Carl Sagan’s 1980 documentary series Cosmos


First half of documentary describes the Dutch astronomer and mathematician, Christiaan Huygens; the second half describes the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn in 1979




Documentary film about Saturn 

First part only

Narrated by Patrick Stewart

c. 2000 (8 min.)






Saturn's Restless Rings


Results from the Cassini Mission


2009 lecture





The Cassini Huygens Mission


1997 - 2005





What Huygens Saw on Titan


New Image Processing





Destination: Titan


2011 documentary about the exploration of Saturn's biggest moon, Titan (59 min.)


About the Huygens probe of Titan, launched in 1997 and landed in 2005





Cassini: Epic Journey at Saturn


Public talk about the Cassini mission's final year (2017)


Earl Maize, Cassini Project Manager, JPL


Linda Spilker, Cassini Project Scientist, JPL


22 September 2016







Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Carolin Crawford, Michele Dougherty and Andrew Coates


14 January 2016


BBC asks the listener to install a Flash Player to hear the programme. Try Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. Otherwise, the progamme can be downlaoded quickly directly and quickly from the programme's webpage.














Inside Uranus
Voyager visits Uranus
Excerpt from 1990 Nova documentary narrated by Patrick Stewart
Episode from Space School


Neptune with its 14 moons

File:Neptunian rings scheme 2.svg

Neptune with its rings                       Source: Fama Clamosa

Neptune's core

Neptune's core


Neptune with his chariot (200s AD), Tunisia


Neptune Calming the Waves







Neptune Calming the Waves  -  marble

statue by Adam Lambert-Sigisbert in

1737 (Louvre)







Space School





A Brief History of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 







Voyager 2 at Neptune


Voyager's Last Encounter


1989 NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPL CalTech (3:24)





Neptune - Voyager's Last Journey


Episode from the 1989 series The Sky at Night as Voyager approached Neptune (34:08)







Halley's Comet
Halley's Comet in 1986
Halley's Comet's retrograde orbit 
Halley's Comet's orbit is inclined 18° to the ecliptic and most of it is below (or south of) the ecliptic
Brief Intro
The nucleus of Halley's Comet photographed by the Giotto spacecraft, March 14, 1986
Halley's Comet
Documentary about Halley's Comet and the ESA Giotto program by the ESA and the BBC's "Horizon".


ESA sent a spacecraft to within 600 km. of Halley's Comet in 1986.




Halley's Comet Orbital Path





Giotto fly-by of Halley's Comet (March 14, 1986





Giotto: Halley's Comet fly-by animation (March 14, 1986)



Halley's Comet was observed in 1066   -   shortly before the Norman invasion of England   -  and recounted on the Bayeux Tapestry.
In the Middle Ages, the appearance of a comet was considered a bad omen. But Duke William of Normandy believed the comet portended victory. 
He defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings and took the crown from the defeated king of England. Thus began the Norman Conquest of England.  


NASA Photo, July 15, 2015
Pluto-Charon of the Kuiper Belt
Pluto and the biggest of its five known moons, Charon
Pluto and four of its five moons
Pluto compared to the four inner planets
Pluto's orbit about the Sun  
Pluto's orbit about the Sun takes it well into the Kuiper Belt
Pluto's orbit about the Sun and through the Kuiper Belt          Source: Thinglink
Discovered in 1930, Pluto was believed to be the long-sought "Planet X"  -  the ninth planet of the the solar system. However, it was eventually determined that Pluto was too small to be a planet. Today Pluto and the biggest of its four known moons, Charon, discovered in 1978, are identified as a double or binary dwarf planet system and the largest object in the Kuiper Belt.
Beyond Our Earth
Pluto, reclassified a dwarf plant, compared in size with
other dwarf plants or Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs).
Eris appers to be larger.
Orbits of Pluto and Eris
Orbits of TNOs
Passport to Pluto
2005 documentary    -    before launch of the latest probe New Horizons 
(5 clips)
New Horizons probe to Pluto
Exploring Pluto and Charon
NASA's "New Horzions", launched in 2006, to fly by Pluto and Charon in 2015
New Horizons
Orbiter Space Flight Simulator
New Horizons:
Exploring the Solar System's Frontier
Lecture by Alan Stern, June 2007
Passport to Pluto and Beyond

Documentary (2007) (45:31)





Pluto, Eris and Dwarf Planets of Outer Solar System

Lecture by Mike Brown (discoverer of Eris) of Caltech, March 2007


Pluto and Beyond
Brief documentary (2009) 
New Horizons Pluto Mission
Lecture by Alan Stern at the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence Institute (SETI) in Astrobiology (Undergraduate Research at the SETI Institute in Astrobiology [URSA]) in January 2011


Bastille Day   -   July 14, 2015  
New Horizons to fly-by Pluto
On Pluto's Doorstep
Pluto on the Horizon   
Anticipating our First Encounter with the Double Planet
Lecture by Mark Showalter (January 28, 2015)

New Horizons Pluto Fly-By in Jeapordy
NASA lost contact with the craft for 90 minutes on July 4. The craft is on auto mode and might not be able to gather and transmit data during its fly-by.
New Horizons is Going Dark for Flyby
Pluto in a Minute


NASA, July 13





NASA’s New Horizon probe makes historic Pluto flyby






NASA Releases First Images From Pluto Flyby

July 15, 2015




Mountains on Pluto







What We've Learned from the Pluto Flyby!

Episode from SciShowSpace

Pluto Close-Up displays the most details thus far
Taken 23 minutes before closest approach (July 14, 2015)
Uploaded May 31, 2016

Chasing Pluto

NOVA documentary (2015)

Entire mission from launch to fly-by (51:51)


Note: Ceres is in the Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter

Kuiper Belt
Solar System (including Pluto) within the Kuiper Belt 
Kuiper Belt


Kuiper Belt and the Tenth Planet Discovery

Lecture by Mike Brown

Kahilu Theatre in Waimea on Hawaii (the biggest of the Hawaiian Islands)

September 15, 2011



The Kuiper Belt and its Implications 

Lecture by Jane Luu at the Royal Society in London

20 November 2013



Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Io, Europa & Triton
Episode from the Universe documentary series

New Horizons

The Exploration of the Pluto System and the Kuiper Belt Beyond 

Lecture by Alan Stern


(54:22) (Lecture begins at the 08:45 mark)



The Exploration of Pluto by New Horizons

Lecture by Alan Stern

2016 NASA Ames Summer Lecture Series




The Exploration of Pluto

Lecture by Alan Stern





The Pluto System as Explored by New Horizons

Lecture by Alan Stern

2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Annual Meeting, Boston, Massachusetts



The Kuiper Belt
Discussion of the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg
With guests Carolin Crawford, Monica Grady and Stephen Lowry
2 March 2017



And Planet X?
A new 9th planet for the solar system?
Science Magazine
A New Ninth Planet May Have Been Detected!

Scientists may have found "true" ninth planet




Evidence of a Ninth Planet


Did we just find the Ninth Planet?
A Ninth Planet may have been found & . . .  
Beyond Science

Bow shock theory has been abandoned
Heliosphere traveling through interstellar space
The Heliosphere
Episode 4 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? by David Butler
Interstellar Space
The Sun, Solar System and Heliosphere traveling through interstellar space; Voyager 1, the first space probe to enter interstellar space (September 2013); and Voyager 2 exiting the heliosphere
Voyager 1 traveling through the Heliosheath in 2012
For latest conception of the heliosphere traveling through interstellar space, view this by NASA:
Voyager 1 was launched from Cape Canaveral a fortnight after Voyager 2 in September 1977

Voyager 1 and 2 explored Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and 48 of their moons; their rings; and magnetic fields.

Testing Voyager 1 before launch


Voyager I exits solar system, enters interstellar space, September 13, 2013:


125.3 Astronomical Units (AU) from the Sun


JPL video:













Oort Cloud
Oort Cloud surrounds Kuiper Belt (sketch not to proper scale; Oort is actually much bigger; see below)
The Sun and planets plus Pluto (Our Solar System) within the Kuiper Belt; the Kuiper Belt within the Oort Cloud
Distances from the Sun
The distance from the Sun to the Earth is 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)
The Oort Cloud
Ep. 292 of the weekly Google + Monday show Astronomy Cast with Pamela Gay, U. of S. Illinois, and Fraser Cain, Universe Today 
(51 min. 44 sec. - starts at the 11:51 mark)
(46 min. 10 sec. - starts at the 4:57 mark)

The Comet's Tale
2007 BBC documentary (59:05)
Discussion on In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (BBC Jan. 17, 2013)

Astronomers believe that comets originate in the Oort Cloud.
In 1999, three astrophysicists theorized that long-period comets, which take thousands to millions of years to complete an orbit, are influenced by a giant gas planet in the outer reaches of the Oort Cloud. They call this planet Tyche. It has not been been observed, however.   








Star Identification (1942)

US Navy film to assist training in navigation

(2 clips)

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vG3U8GD_So




1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZ3IJRgr9v4


2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uhD3lMEXizU





A Graphic Guide to the Heavens







The next star out  - 

Alpha Centauri three-star System


Two stars seen above, Alpha Centauri Alpha and Alpha Centauri Beta, form a binary star system. With a third star, Proximo Centauri, they might form a three-star system. The three stars are the closest stars to our own star   -   the sun. Proximo Centuari is the closet to us. It is 4.24 light years away. Alpha Centauri Alpha and Alpha Centuari Beta are 4.37 light years from us. Planets might orbit the binary star system or orbit each star.

Alpha Centauri appears near the edge (possible edge) of the Oort Cloud, on the right in the illustration




Space exploration

Destination the Alpha Centauri star system

A short video



Voyage to Pandora:

First Interstellar Space Flight

Episode about Alpha Centauri from the Cosmic Journeys documentary series






The Lives of Stars

Episode 9 of the documentary Cosmos, A Personal Voyage with Carol Sagan (1980)

Includes 1987 update

Atoms - the sub-atomic particles of electrons, protons and neutrons - the chemical elements - stars - red giants- supernovae - white dwarfs - neutron stars - pulsars - black holes - radioactivity, cosmic rays and gravity curving spacetime

Cosmos Update (1990): the supernova SN 1987A and neutrino astronomy





                              Black Holes


Black holes are theoretical.

There are at least two types of black holes.

1. Stellar black holes

Very big stars, at least 20 times the mass of our sun, collapse and become black holes

2. Super-massive black holes

Black holes exist at the center of galaxies.

3. Miniature black holes

(See the section on black holes following the section on galaxies below. )


Black Holes, Dark Energy and the Age of the Universe


Lecture 17 of 18 of the course Physics 20B. Cosmology by James Bullock at the University of Calidornia - Irvine campus in 2013




Life of Stars


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2003)







The Sun and the nearest stars

Weirdest Planets
2010 National Geographic documentary recounts the discovery of the first exoplant, 51 Pegasi b,, nicknamed Bellerophon, in 1992   -   the fist time a planet revolving about another star was observed. And subsequent discoveries.
Kepler Telescope
NASA Kepler Mission Launch
Launched March 9, 2009
Picture or Photo of 3d small person speaks at the podium. 3D image. On a white background.
Planets and Exoplanets
David Jewitt on our solar system and systems of other stars (November 2010)
The Quest for Other Worlds Like Earth
Lecture about the Kepler Mission, launched in 2009, and the search for Exoplanets by Thomas Gautier of JPL (2012?)
Update 1 - The Kepler Mission
An update on July 2, 2012 to the course, 
Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (Astr 160), at Yale U., Spring 2007, with Charles Bailyn
The Kepler mission discovered thousands of new exoplanets.
Yale U. site:
Four lectures (# 4 - # 7) on exoplanets from the course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (Astr 160) with Charles Bailyn, Spring 2007, Yale U.
Lecture # 4 - Discovering Exoplanets: Hot Jupiters
Theory of Planetary Formation   -   Observing Moving Exoplanets and Stars   -   Doppler Shift   -   51 Pegasus and "Hot Jupiters"
Yale U. site:
Lecture 5 - Planetary Transits
A Case for Pluto? Interactions between Culture and Science   -   Velocity and Center of Mass   -   Observations of Hot Jupiters and the Selection Effect   -   Hot Jupiters - Double or Pulsating Stars?   -   Measuring Doppler Shifts to Understand Hot Jupiters

Yale U.:


Lecture 6 - Microlensing, Astrometry and Other Methods
Complexities and New Observations on Hot Jupiters   -   Discovery of Planetary Transits   -   Limits of Finding Planets Directly from Transits   -   Metallicity and Planetary Migration   -   Consequences and Limits of the Idea of Planetary Migration

Yale U. site:



Lecture 7 - Direct Imaging of Exoplanets

Calculating Planetary Density from Transits and Doppler Shifts   -   Astrometry to Assess Planetary Position   -   Summary of Planetary Identification Methods   -   Kepler, SIM, and TPF

Yale U. site:



Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg, October 3, 2013
Habitable planet found orbiting Proxima Centauri
Proxima Centauri b
Press Conference at ESO HQ in Garching, Germany, 24 August 2016
Proxima b orbiting round nearest star could be Earth-like

Milky Way Galaxy

(Our) Milky Way Galaxy


Our solar system in the Milky Way
Our solar system in the Milky Way Galaxy
Milky Way and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) (a satellite galaxy)
The Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) (satellite galaxies)
2002 National Geographic chart of the Milky Way 
The Milky Way (center) and Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC) (far right) viewed from Earth

Galileo and the Milky Way


Episode # 70 of the documentary series Great Moments in Science and Technology



Journey through the Milky Way
2011 National Geographic documentary film about the Milky Way and recent discoveries and theories
The Mystery of the Milky Way
Part 1 of the 2010 Nova documentary series Hunting the Edge of Space
About telescopes from Galileo to the present

Hubble Space Telescope & the formation of the Galaxy





The Milky Way
Episode 10 of the 2013 documentary series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler

lecture hall, FBAUL

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way
Lecture 11 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013
The Milky Way and its satellite galaxies form part of the Local Group of Galaxies
Our Local Group of Galaxies
The Milky Way Galaxy and Our Local Group of 54 galaxies; the three largest galaxies in the Local group are Andromeda, the largest; then the Milky Way; and Triangulum, the third largest; most of the other galaxies rotate around the three largest galaxies 
Biggest galaxy of Our Local Group of Galaxies
The Andromeda Galaxy is the largest galaxy in Our Local Group. It is 2.5 million light years from Earth. Like the Milky Way, it is a spiral galaxy.
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889 - 1953),
American astronomer. 
In 1923, Hubble determined that
Andromeda was not an object within
the Milky Way, as commonly believed
at the time, but another galaxy. Until
then, it was generally assumed that
the Milky Way was the only galaxy and
that it contained the entire universe.
Hubble also proved the existence of
other galaxies beyond the Milky Way.

The Ever Expanding Universe

Part 2 of the 2010 Nova documentary series Hunting the Edge of Space
Recounts the discovery of Andromeda as a distant galaxy separate from the Milky Way (HD 1080p)
Speaker Drawing - Line drawing of speaker with podium

Discovering the Galaxy

Lecture 12 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013



Most of Andromeda's satellite galaxies lie along its polar plane
Source: NASA, ESA et al
Source: NASA, ESA et al
The Milky Way Galaxy and Andromeda Galaxy will eventually collide in four billion years
Colliding Galaxies
Episode 15 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
Our Local Group of Galaxies includes the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies and the Andromeda Galaxy and its satellite galaxies.
Andromeda and the Local Group
Episode 11 of the 2013 series How Far Away is It? with David Butler
3d person on the tribune - 3d person speaking from a tribune...

Understanding Galaxies

Lecture 14 of 18 by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013





Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2006)







Quasars and Black Holes
Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (Quasar) and Super-Massive Black Hole (SMBH)
The first black hole discovered
location of Cygnus X-1
Cygnus (Swan) Constellation
Cygnus X-1 is one of two stars in a binary star system (indicated by a red box in NASA photo below, left); astronomers suspect that Cygnus X-1 is a collapsed massive star   -   stellar-mass black hole   -   and sucking in its massive companion blue star (as shown in the NASA illustration below, right).
Cygnus X-1
Cygnus X-1 - A Black Hole
The first discovery of a black hole, in 1964 
Black Holes, Dark Energy and the Age of the Universe
Lecture 17 of 18 of the course Physics 20B. Cosmology by James Bullock at the University of Calidornia - Irvine campus in 2013

Podium with mic Stock Vector - 21059726

Introduction to Black Holes
Lecture # 8 of the Astronomy course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (ASTR 160) by Charles Bailyn, Yale U., Spring semester 2007

- Introduction
- Escape Velocity
- Defining Black Holes and the Schwarzschild Radius
- Gravity and Pressure in the Evolution of Stars
- From Electron Degeneracy Pressure to the Chandrasekhar Limit
- Neutron Stars
- Conclusion

Yale U. website:
You Tube:
Special and General Relativity
Lecture # 9 of the Astronomy course Frontiers and Controversies in Astrophysics (ASTR 160) by Charles Bailyn, Yale U., Spring semester 2007
- Event Horizon
- Singularity and Clarifications on Black Holes
- Locating Black Holes
- Introduction to Special and General Relativity

Yale U.:
You Tube:

The Quasar and the Death Star
2009 documentary
Supermassive Black Hole in the Milky Way Galaxy
2008 documentary about the discovery of the Black Hole in the Milky Way
Black Holes
Episode from the documentary series How the Universe Works



Monster Black Holes
National Geographic Naked Science documentary
Cosmic Monsters
2010 National Geographic documentary
Swallowed by a Black Hole
Horizon documentary
Black Holes
No need to be afraid!
Lecture by Ian Morison

Black Holes


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio program In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg (2001)






Spitzer Space Telescope
The Local Galaxy Volume
Episode 12 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
Images of other galaxies taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, launched in 2003


The Virgo or Local Supercluster
The massive Virgo Cluster of some 2,000 galaxies is 60 mly away from us.  
Virgo Supercluster
Episode 13 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
A nearby group of galaxies, like our own Local Group, called Hikson, 60 million light years away 

Our galaxy is one galaxy among a cluster of galaxies, like the Hercules galaxy cluster of some 200 galaxies (above), about 500 mly away, in the Hercules Supercluster




Local Superclusters
Our Local Galaxy Group and many other groups of galaxies 
are drawn to the more massive Virgo Cluster to form the Virgo Supercluster of Galaxies. 
The Virgo Supercluster of Galaxies is one of many superclusters forming a cluster of superclusters. 
Lectern 8
Universe of Galaxies
Lecture 15 of 18 by by James Bullock from the course Physics 20B Cosmology at UC - Irvine, Winter 2013
Local Superclusters
Episode 14  of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler 
Local Superclusters form filaments
The Cosmos
Episode 16 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler
Credits and Research Topics
Episode 17 of the 2013 series How Far Away Is It? with David Butler


The Hubble telescope, launched in 1990, orbits the Earth above the atmosphere, which allows it to take clearer photos of objects in outer space 
View of deep space from the Hubble Space Telescope. In fact, Hubble records images in black and white (gray scale). Color is added by technicians at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland
How the Hubble Space Telescope's color images are created
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
Short explanation (10:12)
Make Your Own Color Hubble Image

Hubble's Heritage

Lecture by Ian Morison at Gresham College (2011)
Lecture begins with an update on the Kepler mission and the discovery of exoplanets; then a description of the life of Edwin Hubble and the Hubble Telescope

Discovery STS 031



http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uaSelAjgUHs (Removed from You Tube)


1990: STS-31 Discovery, Hubble Space Telescope (NASA)

Mission narrated by the space shuttle astronauts



1990 Space Shuttle Discovery STS-31 Hubble Space Telescope

CNN Report



STS-125 Crew launches Hubble




Hubble - 15 Years of Discovery

NASA documentary (2005)
The story of the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble's Amazing Universe
National Geographic documentary (2010?)
Hubble Space Telescope
The best Images from over two decades in orbit
Hubble Telescope Replacement:
The James Webb Space Telescope

Journey to the Edge of the Universe
Documentary imagines a trip to the planets, beyond our solar system and galaxy . . . )