The English Language

1. Indo-Europeans, Celts, Romans | 2. Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians - Old English | 3. Vikings, Middle English | 4. Modern English | 5. The Celts - Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Isle of Man | 6. North America - U. S. A. & Canada | 7. Down Under - Australia & New Zealand | 8. Speaking English



On the English Language







`outline map British Isles``



The Great British Venn Diagram














Countries where English is an official language and/or spoken by many people(Source: U. of Stockholm)




The Story of English


with Robert MacNeil


9-part 1986 BBC and PBS TV series


An English Speaking World


Program 1 of 9


or in 7 clips:


















How to use a dictionary






Oxford English Dictionary (O. E. D.)


John Simon

 Removed from You Tube



Paul Martin (00:06:43)



How the OED was compiled






This site is under reconstruction

This website was:
See also:   Oliver's  Site





Lycos Tripod has blocked the original of this site since mid-October 2013 without justification.  

This website was one of 16 websites hacked by Lycos Tripod employees within hours of its last updating on October 13, 2013. The websites are controlled by James Champa's website account, created in 2003, frequently updated and never blocked before.


Despite many requests to the company since then for an explanation of the blockage there has been only one reply   -    a wild and lewd insult from an employee in Waltham, Massachusetts. The hate mail was sent twice, in late October and early November 2013. 


Lycos Tripod employees have refused to explain the website account blockage or the hate mail.


Of the 16 websites controlled by the website account blocked by Lycos Tripod nine sites concern an international child trafficking case and were posted to assist law enforcement agencies to search for the trafficking victim. The other websites, including this website, concern cultural matters.


Legal counsel reviewed the website account and found nothing objectionable. The exposure of pedophiles and traffickers in children is substantiated by irrefutable documentation.


It appears that the hacking and hate mail were by more than one employee at Lycos Tripod in Waltham. All indications are that the hacker of the website account and the sender of hate mail conspired with an international pedophile and prostitution ring trafficking in women and children or its associates to remove the websites.


The relevant law enforcement authorities have been alerted to the hacking and the hate mail and shown evidence of a criminal conspiracy to traffic in women and children. The blockage of the website account is being investigated as a criminal matter.

Evolution of Man
The Evolution of Language
Lecture by Jürgen Handke from the series Language Typology (2012)


The Big Picture



 The major languages of the world today

Indo-European  45 – 46%






Afro-Asiatic (includes Semitic languages Hebrew and Arabic)


Austronesian (believed to have originated in and spread from Taiwan/Formosa)




The Indo-European Languages


The early historical distribution of Indo-European linguistic groups
The Origins and Spread of Languages
Short animation


An explanation of the Indo-European languages


2 parts







Language Reconstruction


Lecture from the series Language Typology by Jürgen Handke (2012)


Comparing languages to find a common ancestral origin   -   a proto-language





Where was the Indo-European homeland?


Where did Indo-Europeans originate?


Academics have proposed several hypotheses; the two most popular are:


1. North of the Black Sea in the present-day Ukraine and the Russian steppes north of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and Caspian in 2,000 BC


2. In Neolithic (New Stone Age) Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern Asiatic Turkey)



History and Geography of Languages


Lecture by Martin W. Lewis and Asya Pereltsvaig at the Festival delle Scienze in Rome, Italy, January 26, 2014



Mismodeling Indo-European Origins


The Assault on Historical Linguistics


Lecture by Martin W. Lewis and Asya Pereltsvaig



The Promise of Historical Linguistics and the Conundrum of Indo-European Origins


Lecture by Martin W. Lewis at the Oakmont Sunday Symposium, October 27, 2013



Early Indo-European migrations, economies, and phylogenies

Lecture by David Anthony at a seminar, Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration, at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012



Wheeled vehicles, horses, and Indo-European origins


Lecture by David Anthony at a seminar, Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration, at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012


Before Babel

In Search of the First Language


1997 Horizon documentary







The Tocharians



Mummies of the Takla Makan


Mystery of the Mummies





Same film with different narration:



Mysterious Mummies of China


1998 documentary by Nova




Before Silk 


Questions of East-West Exchange Before the Silk



Lecture by Colin Renfrew


Secrets of the Silk Road Symposium, the U. of Penn. Museum, March 2011


On Tocharians



Indo-European Dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe


Lecture by archeologist James Patrick Mallory


Secrets of the Silk Road Symposium, the U. of Penn. Museum, March 2011




The Problem of Tocharian Origins


Lecture by James Mallory at a seminar Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012












Writing first appeared in the Fertile Crescent   -   the geographical region between the Tigris River in the east and the Nile River in the west.
But which came first?
Mesopotamian Cuneiform or Egyptian Heiroglyphs?
Scholars disagree.
Many believe both appeared at the same time.

Early Mesopotamian Cuneiform
Cuneiform writing
Late Mesopotamian Cuneiform
Old egypt hieroglyphs — Stock Photo #4314732

Egyptian Heiroglyphs




The Birth of Writing 



Excerpt about ancient writing from a documentary








Hammurabi's Law Code


Basalt stele with the code

of Hammurabi (1792 - 1750

BC) in the Akkadian language

in cuneiform script excavated

in Susa, Iran in 1901.



Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi


(1792 - 1750 B. C.)


Beth Harris and Steven Zucker visiting Le Louvre, Paris



Hammurabi and the Earliest Written Laws


Excerpt from a lecture by Gregory Aldrete from The Great Courses



The Code of Hammurabi


Audio (75:06)


Hammurabi's Babylon


Lecture # 4 of 12 by Kenneth W. Harl from the course Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations (from The Great Courses)


Hammurabi's Code of Law; Ziusudra, Atrahasis, Gilgamesh; Babylon








   The Epic of Gilgamesh


A tablet with the Epic of Gilgamesh written in cuneiform



Tablet V of the epic




(2 clips)









(12 clips)



























Le fantôme d'Uruk


À la recherche du roi Gilgamesh


Terra X Doku (2007)







Journeys to the End of the World


Lecture by Steve Tinney


Great Voyages Lecture Series


University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia


8 January 2014


Epic of Gilgamesh

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Andrew George, Frances Reynolds and Martin Worthington

3 November 2016


You Tube:



Entire text of the Epic of Gilgamesh


Online audio reading of Tablet V in Old Akkadian:


About the recently discovered Tablet V in Kurdistan:








         The Cyrus Cylinder



The Cyrus Cylinder (front  side shown in the above photo) is a barrel-shaped cylinder made from baked clay and measures a maximum 8.9 inches by a maximum 3.9 inches. Photo Source: Prioryman


The cylinder is covered with a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script on behalf of the Persian ruler Cyrus II the Great (ruled 559 - 530 BC), founder of the Achaemenid Empire (559 - 330 BC), and dates from Cyrus' conquest of the Neo- (New) Babylonian Empire c. 539 BC.


It was discovered in Babylon in 1871 and is today in the British Museum.


The Cyrus Cylinder


The Discovery and Creation of an Icon


A Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 


12 April 2012



The Cyrus Cylinder from Ancient Babylon and the Beginning of the Persian Empire


Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, New York


20 June 2013





Full text:



Full text read aloud (audio):




Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great spread from the Aegean Sea to Central Asia








  The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription



The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription   -   texts and low reliefs carved from a cliff face of Mount Bisotun (Behistun) in present-day Iran.


The three separate inscriptions, each in a different languages   -   Old Persian, Elamite and Late Babylonian Akkadian   -   were written in cuneiform script and recount the conquests of King Darius I (the Great) of Persia (ruled 522 BC  -  486 BC).


The eventual decipherment of Old Persian in the mid-1800s simplified the translation of the Late Babylonian Akkadian.



Cracking the Code


An excerpt from a lecture by David Neiman from the course Cradles of Civilization, Los Angeles, California (2000)








The History of Writing (to English)



The Evolution of Writing


Jürgen Handke (2014)



Modern Writing Systems


Jürgen Handke (2014)








From Egyptian hieroglyphs to the Canaanite alphabet, to the Phoenician alphabet, to the Greek and Latin alphabets


Phoenician trading network 





The Mediterranean in 650 B. C. 





From Egyptian hieroglyphs to Phoenician to Greek to Latin





             The Rosetta Stone


The Rosetta Stone, a fragment of a stele, found near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta by a French soldier of Napoleon's expeditionary force to Egypt in 1799. 


The fragment had part of a decree issued for the Egyptian Pharoah Ptolemy V during the Hellenistic Period in Ptolemaic Egypt in 196 BC. Macedonians ruled Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC.    


The decree is inscribed in two different languages, Ancient Egyptian and Ancient Greek, and three different scripts, Hieroglyphic, Ehyptian Demotic and Greek.


The text at the top is in the Ancient Egyptian language (2690 BC - late 1600s AD) and written in hieroglyphs (3200 BC - c. AD 400), the script of priests and religious documents.


The middle text is also in the Ancient Egyptian language but written in the Egyptian Demotic script (600s BC - 400s AD), the common language and common script of the time.


The text at the bottom is in Ancient Greek (800s BC  -  500s AD), the language and script of the Greek rulers and government officials of Egypt.


Knowledge of Ancient Greek allowed for the translation of the hieroglyphs.



The Rosetta Stone


Episode from the documentary series Ancient Mysteries (1996)





Episode from the documentary series The Science of Secrecy



Decoding Hieroglyphics


An excerpt from a lecture by David Neiman in Los Angeles, California in 2000



Encyclopaedia Galactica


Excerpts from episode 12, Encyclopaedia Galactica, of the 1980 documentary series Cosmos with Carl Sagan


Best viewed in the following sequence:










or from the 09:35 mark to the 27:49 mark in the complete 60-minute episode





The Rosetta Stone


Lecture by Richard Parkinson at Gresham College


Uploaded 2016



The Rosetta Stone


With Beth Harris and Steven Zucker at the British Musuem



Things You Might Not Know


By Tom Scott



English translations of Greek and Egyptian sections of the Rosetta Stone:


add links here





History of the Alphabet Source: BAS
Notes from BAS caption:
- 3,500 years ago
- Serabit miners
- Original Proto-Sinaitic letters from pictographs in Middle Egyptian hieroglyphs
- 1200 B.C.E. a more linear, abstracted script
- Iron Age Syria and Palestine
- Modern Hebrew letters developed from the Aramaic alphabet retain names of many original Proto-Sinaitic letters




Ugaritic, Canaanite, Hebrew and Phoenician are closely related languages


Source: American Heritage Dictionary



History of the Alphabet




The Alphabet


Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Eleanor Robson, Alan Millard and Rosalind Thomas


18 December 2003









Proto-Canaanite = Proto-Sinaitic




Phoenicians and Genetics


Spencer Wells (2008)


"Genetically . . . the Canaanites, Phoenicians and Lebanese are the same people."





Lebanese geneticists trace link to Phoenicians  


Al Jazeera


22 November 2008


"Only 27% of Lebanese carry the Phoenician gene."



Tracing a Lost Civilization


Phoenician & Lebanese DNA

Inside the Middle East

The Quest for the Phoenicians

Film documentary





Sailing with the Phoenicians


Episode from the documentary series Secrets of Archeology







The Phoenicians


Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Mark Woolmer, Josephine Quinn and Cyprian Broodbank


6 February 2014




You Tube:






22-letter Phoenician alphabet (in the above chart)




How the Phoenicians started the Alphabet 



Ancient Greek alphabet 


ancient greek alphabet

Source: Hellenism.Net
The oldest example of writing in Ancient Greek, displayed above, It is believed to date from circa 800 B. C.. It was found in an inscription on the Mediterranean island of Crete. Ancient Greek was written from right to left on a horizontal line.
The Greek letters appear on the top line. Their names in Greek script appear on the second line. Their names and letters in modern Latin script appear on the third and fourth lines. 
(Source: Hellenism.Net()

Phoenician and Early Greek alphabets compared with other ancient scripts (in the chart below)





Modern Greek


modern greek alphabet


Source: Hellenism.Net



The Rise of Greek Civilization
Lecture # 5 from the course The Western Tradition by Eugen Weber at UCLA (1989)
                     The Trojan War
File:Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.jpg
The Trojan horse
Introduction to Ancient Greek History
A history course by Donald Kagan at Yale U. in Autumn 2007
Lecture 2. The Dark Ages
1. The Minoan Civilization (Crete)
2. Mycenaean language (Greek) and writing (Linear B script)
3. The citadel, farmland, burials and the olive oil trade
4. Cultural unity, agriculture, religious authority
5. Society and economy
6. Theories about the fall of the Mycenaean world

7. Results of the fall

Lecture 3 - The Dark Ages (continued)
1. The importance of Homeric poems
2. The society described in Homer's poems
3. Political structures
4. Ethics and values
Lecture 4 - The Rise of the Polis (city-state)
1.Defining "Arête" (prowess, excellence)
2.Impacts on western civilization
3.The rise of the "Polis" (city-state) [00:36:02]
4.The features and importance of the "Polis" 


                          The Iliad
The Trojan War & Homeric Warfare
Lecture # 6 by Garrett Fagan the course Great Battles of the Ancient World
The Olympian Gods and the Trojan War
The Olympian Goddesses and the Trojan War
The Iliad
Episode from IntelliQuest World 100 Greatest Books (1995)
The Iliad, Illustrated
Carey Harrison
Fury of Achilles
Movie (1962) 
Helen of Troy
2004 movie (2:47:14)
Helen of Troy 
BBC documentary with Bettany Hughes
In Search of the Trojan War
BBC documentary series with Michael Wood on the BBC (1985) 
6 episodes
1. The Age of Heroes
2. The Legend Under Siege
3. The Singer of Tales
4. The Women of Troy
5. Empire of the Hittites 
6. The Fall of Troy
Extra   -   Michael Wood Interview (2004)
Achilles and Agamemnon  
Lecture 2 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
Lecture 3 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
Was there a Trojan War?
Recent Excavations at Troy
Lecture by Brian Rose, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 
December 5, 2012

The Trojan War


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time 

with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, May 31, 2012

The Collapse of the Bronze Age
Lecture 9 of 12 from the course Origin of Civilizations by Kenneth Harl 
Secrets of the Aegean Apocalypse
                          The Odyssey
The Odyssey
Episode from IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books (1995)(38:11) 
Lecture 4 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
The Odyssey, Nostalgia, and the Lost Home
Lecture by Peter Struck at the University of Pennsylvania 
Museum (2014) 
1954 movie (1:41:35)





Etruscan alphabet


Etruscan alphabet (ca. 400 B. C.) 





The Etruscan Civilization 


Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests


With guests Phil Perkins, David Ridgway and Corinna Riva


29 August 2011






You Tube:



A Place called Etruria


Episode from the documentary series Secrets of Archeology  (35:30) (25:00)




Enigma of the Etruscans


Episode from the documentary series Lost Worlds  (55:35)














An Indo-European language 


The Indo-European Language Family and Latin



Why Study Latin?


1951 Coronet educational film (10:59)





Historical Presentation and Pronunciation Tutorial 




    Archaic Latin

      Classical Latin

        Late Latin

          Vulgar Latin

            Medieval Latin

              Renaissance Latin

                Early Modern Latin

                  Neo Latin

                    Ecclesiastical/Liturgical Latin



What Latin sounded like


. . . and how we know


Short video (05:58)




Latin Alphabet



Archaic Latin alphabet



Archaic Latin alphabet (with variants) (from 500s B. C. to 75 B. C.)





Classical Latin Alphabet 


Classical Latin alphabet   



Classical Latin alphabet had 23 letters

   (in the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire)



Latin consonants


Latin vowels


Latin gender


Latin numbers (and counting)






Roman Numerals

Roman numerals image

The seven Roman letters used in numerals


Roman Numerals Chart

The Mathematics of Love



The Basics of Roman Numerals



How to Read Roman Numerals



Roman Numerals

Counting  1  - 100



Counting in Latin



Reading Roman Numerals



Roman Numerals

200 to 300



The Origin of Roman Numerals  








Example of spoken Latin


Rome's Greatest Battles, a two-part documentary by National Geographic in 2010, about two battles, Philippi (42 BC) and Actium (31 BC), includes monologues and dialogues in Latin.



Brutus and the Opposition to Caesar


Lecture # 13 of 24 of the course Famous Romans by J. Rufus Fears



The Death of Caesar


History's Most Famous Assassination


Lecture by Barry Strauss at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 22 July 2015





The Battle of Philippi in 42 BC


Part 1 of a two-part documentary, Rome's Greatest Battles, by National Geographic (2010)


Movie with Latin dialogue with English sub-titles narrated in English


Following the assassination of Julius Caesar, the forces of Ceasar's long-time right-hand man, Marc Antony, and Caesar's adopted son and heir, Octavian, defeat Caesar's assassins, Cassius and Brutus, at Philippi in Macedonia in 42 BC.




Marc Antony addresses the Roman senate after Caesar's murder


Marc Antony addresses the people of Rome at Caesar's funeral


Caesar's Will and Octavian





The Battle of Actium (31 BC)


Part 2 of the two-part documentary Rome's Greatest Battles by National Geographic (2010)


The naval forces of Octavian defeat the naval forces of Marc Antony (83 - 30 BC) and the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69 - 30) in the Ionian Sea off the Greek coast of Epirus outside the Gulf of Actium.


The victory over Antony gave Octavian sole command of the Roman empire. Egypt was made a province of Rome. 


Movie with Latin dialogue with English sub-titles narrated in English






Virgil, 70 BC - 19 BC

Publius Vergilius Maro

(70 BC - 19 BC)





                       The Aeneid



Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus and Octavia (1787) by Jean-Joseph Taillasson (1745 - 1809)



The journey of Aeneas from Troy to Carthage to Latium




The Travels of Aeneas


Documentary follows the voyage of Aeneas from Troy to Latium






The Aeneid




Episode from IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books (1995)




The Aeneid


Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests Edith Hall, Philip Hardie and Catharine Edwards


21 April 2005


You Tube:






The Aeneid


Reading in Latin with written Latin and English translation - lines 1 - 755


lines 1 - 290


lines 290 - 490


lines 490 - 594


lines 594 - 695


lines 695 - 755




The Trojan Horse


(The Wooden Horse of Troy)


1961 movie with Steeve Reeves as Aeneas


La Guerre de Troie (French version) (1:41:02)




The Legend of Aeneas


1962 sequel to The Trojan Horse, with Steeve Reeves (1:35:36)




The Avenger


Another edition or version of the same movie, also with Steeve Reeves (1:36:18)






Lecture 15 of 24 from the course Famous Romans by Rufus Fears 




The Augustan Age


Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 


With guests Catharine Edwards, Duncan Kennedy and Mary Beard


11 June 2009




You Tube:






Lecture 16 of 24 from the course Famous Romans by Rufus Fears 




Reading Virgil through the Ages


Lecture by Ralph Hexter


Emory University, 6 November 2013)









An Example of spoken Latin



Imperator (Emperor)


A story about the Roman Emperor Otho (AD 32 - 16 April AD 69)


Marcus Salvius Otho was the second of the four successive emperors in the eighteen months following the death of the emperor Nero in AD 68.


The emperor Nero was ousted in a revolt and 

committed suicide (9 June AD 68).


Several vied to replace him as emperor.


There were four emperors in quick succession in AD 68 and AD 69   -   Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. 


General Galba, governor in Spain, joined a revolt against Nero in AD 68. At Nero's death, Galba was proclaimed emperor by the armies and by the senate in Rome (9 June AD 68). Galba marched to Rome.


The armies revolted against Galba in January AD 69. General Otho in Rome toppled Galba. The Praetorian Guard and senate proclaimed Otho emperor and Galba was killed on the same day (15 January AD 69).


Vitellius, the Roman governor in Germany, marched on Rome with his army. Otho marched north from Rome to confront Vitellius. Otho was defeated in battle. Preferring to spare Romans further civil war, Otho committed suicide (16 April AD 69). The senate in Rome proclaimed Vitellius emperor (16 April AD 69). 


General Vespasian, commanding the Roman army putting down the Jewish revolt in Judea, was proclaimed emperor by the armies in Judea and Egypt (1 July AD 69). The Roman armies in Europe also proclaimed Vespasian emperor and marched south on Rome. Vitellius marched north from Rome to confront them. Vespasian's army marched north, met Vitellius and defeated him. Vitellius returned to Rome where Vespasian's soldiers killed him (22 December AD 69). The senate proclaimed Vespasian, who was in Egypt, emperor.


Titus Flavius Vespasianus reigned for ten years, till his death in AD 79. He founded a new dynasty, known as the Flavian Dynasty, which ruled for 27 years (AD 69 AD - AD 96). He was succeeded by his two sons, Titus and Domitian. 


2004 movie in Classic Latin with English sub-titles


This upload runs 01:15:07)



To better appreciate the story of Otho see the following:



The Year 69


Uploaded by Arjan van Hoom (2008)



The Long Year, A. D. 69


An excerpt, about Galba, from a lecture, The Long Year, A. D. 69, # 7 of 36 by Garrett Fagan from the 2007 course Emperors of Rome (11:10)





A short description of the emperor Galba by Adrian Murdoch from the series Emperors of Rome (2011)
























File:Venn diagram showing Greek, Latin and Cyrillic letters.svg 

How Greek, Cyrillic and Latin compare   -   how they match and differ












A Historical Perspective


Birth of Britain


Three-part 2010 National Geographic documentary with Tony Robinson

Part 1. Hidden Volcanoes


Part 2. Ice Age





Europe in the last Ice Age 




YEARS AGO                    PERIOD                 CLIMATE

750,000 - 350,000   Cromerian Interglacial   Warm

350,000 - 250,000   Anglian Glacial                 Cold

250,000 - 200,000   Hoxnian Interglacial       Warm

200,000 - 125,000   Wolstonian Glacial          Cold

125,000 - 72,000      Ipswichian Interglacial  Warm

72,000 - 12,000        Devensian Glacial           Cold




A History of Britain


First four parts of an 8-part documentary series with Neil Oliver


Ancient Britain


1. Britain in the Ice Age



2. Ancestors of the Britons









1977 photo 


Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire (3000 -

1600 BC)



    Stonehenge dates back nearly 5,000 years and is located on the Salisbury plains 
    Excavations on the site continue to this day trying to unlock the mysteries that surround the stones
    The blue stones come from over 200 miles away in the Preseli mountains 

Stonehenge today


Sketch of Stonehenge 2,500 years ago   -   sunrays at

the summer solstice directed onto the center stone

Source: Astroarcheology



See photos of 1954 reconstruction work:



3. Britain’s Cosmologists



4. Britain in the Bronze Age


ca. 2,500 - 600 B. C.





Operation Stonehenge


What Lies Beneath


2014 BBC documentary in two parts 


Part 1.


Part 2.





Secrets of Stonehenge


Nova documentary





Who Built Stonehenge?


Episode from the Naked Science documentary series





The Mystery of Stonehenge


History Documentary





The Secrets of Stonehenge


Time Team Special


Episode # 41 (2009)










Britain B. C.


First two episodes of five from the 2004 documentary series A History of Britain with Francis Pryor


Episode 1.


Episode 2.





The Celts
Europe: from Hallstatt in the 800s B. C. to La Tène in the 400s B. C.
The Celts
1986 6-part BBC documentary series with Frank Delaney
Each part about 50 minutes
Naked Warriors of Europe
1995 episode from the A & E documenary series Ancient Mysteries
The Celts
2000 BBC documentary series
1. Halstatt
2. La Tène
The Primitve Celts
Episode from the 2006 documentary series Barbarians with Terry Jones
New ideas on the origins of the Celts
Barry Cunliffe (2012)


Who were the Celts?

2008 lecture by Barry Cunliffe
The Celts
Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg
With guests Barry Cunliffe, Alistair Moffat and
Miranda Aldhouse Green
21 February 2002 
Map - distribution of celtic anguages today

Areas where Celtic languages are spoken today


The Celts settled the British Isles in three waves, from ca. 500 B. C. to ca. 100 BC  

1. Hallstaat Culture  500 - 450 BC

2. La Tene Culture 250 BC

3. Belgae 100 BC



A History of Britain 


8-part documentary series with Neil Oliver 


Celtic Britain  


All of the last four episodes in one 

5. Britain in the Iron Age


800 BC  -  AD 43


6. Britain’s Heroic Warriors


7. Roman Invasion of Britain 


AD 43


8. Roman Britain


AD 43  -  AD 410







Rome and Britain
A D 43  - A D 410
Bust of Julius Caesar (100 B C -
44 B C)
Julius Caesar led the first Roman incursions to Britain in 55 B. C. and 54 B. C. 
The Roman emperors Augustus and Caligula  called off plannned invasions of Britain.
Bust of Roman emperor
Claudius (AD 41 - AD 54)
Under the emperor Claudius, Rome invaded Britain in A. D. 43 and began the process of conquest and colonization in Britain. Claudius toured Britain in A. D. 44. for 16 days.   




Caractacus, king of the Catuvellauni, a Celtic Belgae tribe, presented in chains to the Roman Emperor Claudius in Rome in A. D. 51. (From a print in the 1700s.)


Claudius freed Caractacus and he resettled in Italy.



The Roman Invasions


Documentary narrated by Brian Blessed (1993)





Roman emperor Claudius subduing Britannia in a relief from the Sebasteion (a shrine to the Julio-Claudians) in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor

image img for term side of card

A sketch of the arch of Claudius in Rome, erected in honor of his success in Britain (A. D. 51 - 52)


An inscription from the arch, today in the Capitoline Museum:


The Senate and People of Rome to Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Drusus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunician eleven times, Consul five times, Imperator 22 times, Censor, Father of the Fatherland, because he received the surrender of eleven kings of the Britons defeated without any loss, and the first who brought barbarian peoples from across the Ocean into the dominion of the Roman people.


For the inscription see:




For details see:


Understanding Roman Inscriptions, pp. 476 - 47:



Map of Early Britain: Stages of Roman Conquest

Rome conquered Britain in four stages, from A. D. 43 to A. D. 80 




The Invasion of Britain


Episode # 5 of 14-part 2006 BBC documentary series Rome  -  Rise and Fall of an Empire 






The Last Frontier


3-part documentary series (2009)


1. Invasion 


2. Revolt


3. Dominion




The Roman Invasions of Britain


Three-part 2008 BBC documentary with Bettany Hughes


1. Onslaught

2. Revolt

3. Dominion


The Druids' Last Stand


Episode 4 of Series 14 from Tiime Team with Tony Robinson in Anglesey (2007)




Fishbourne Roman Palace - Fishbourne, West Sussex

Mosaic from Italy in Roman palace in Fishbourne, West Sussex, c. A. D. 60 - 60



The Big Roman Villa


Time Team excavates a Roman villa in Dinnington, Somerset on Big Roman Dig (2006) 


and (2005)


and (2005)


and more . . .




In Lancashire, one of many ancient

Roman roads in Britain



Boudicca statue 

Statue of Boudica by Westminster

Bridge in London



Boudica means Victory, or Victoria




Boudica   -   Revolt against Romans in Britain 


Episode from the documentary series Battlefields with Peter and Dan Snow





Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


11 March 2010 




In Search of Boudica 


1980 episode from the BBC documentary series In Search of the Dark Ages with Michael Wood


Boudica was the Queen of the Iceni, a prominent tribe of Celts, who led a revolt against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 60/61.  




or in 5 clips:










Boudicca's Lost Tribe


Time Team Special (2011)







Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian (A. D. 117 - 138)




Hadrian's Wall was built in northern Britain between A. D. 122 and A. D. 128. The Antonine Wall was built in present-day Scotland between A. D. 142 and A. D. 154 and abandoned in A. D. 162.



Hadrian's Wall in northern Britain




Hadrian's Wall


Timewatch Special documentary with Julian Richards




Antonine Wall (electropod)

Antonine Wall in Scotland





The Great Conspiracy


Rome ca. A. D. 369, after the Great Conspiracy was put down by Rome 




The Great Conspiracy






Roman Britain


What the Romans did for US 

Documentary with Adam Hart-Davis (2000)


1. Roman luxury

2. Invading Britain

3. Building Roman Britain

4. Roman roads

5, Roman walls

6. Roman inventions




Roman Britian


Diiscussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg


With guests


1 May 2003




The End of Roman Britain


Lecture, Wales (2010)




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