The English Language














1. Indo-Europeans, Celts, Romans | 2. Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians - Old English | 3. Vikings, Middle English | 4. Modern English | 5. The Celts - Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Isle of Man | 6. North America - U. S. A. & Canada | 7. Down Under - Australia & New Zealand | 8. Speaking English





 

 

On the English Language

 








































 

 

 

 

 

`outline map British Isles``

 

 

The Great British Venn Diagram

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

---------------

 

 

    






 

 

Countries where English is an official language and/or spoken by many people(Source: U. of Stockholm)

 

 

 

The Story of English

 

with Robert MacNeil

 

9-part 1986 BBC and PBS TV series

 

An English Speaking World

 

Program 1 of 9

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mj9jJiPwsp0

 

or in 7 clips:

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7FtSUPAM-uA

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EEsI2t-mvZk&feature=related

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xzt2p1jRiro&feature=related

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qub-s7e55k&feature=related

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCkcClUopjM&feature=related

 

6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_M9wRLt19Qc&feature=related

 

7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qdxh6cjgNZ8&feature=related 

 

 

 

 
 
look_it_up_T
 
 
How to use a dictionary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Jlat2Rm8yU

 

 

 

 

 

Oxford English Dictionary (O. E. D.)

 

John Simon

 Removed from You Tube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=trRergY9zQ0&feature=related

 

 

Paul Martin (00:06:43)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BcWlLkGEyyI&feature=related

 

 

How the OED was compiled

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v9AgtJTVuuM&feature=related

 

 

 

------------------

 






This site is under reconstruction

This website was:
 
              ---------
 
See also:   Oliver's  Site
 

 

http://members.tripod.com/chanyut_1/oliverssite/

 

 

------------------------

 

 
 
Lycos Tripod has blocked the original of this site since mid-October 2013 without justification.  

This website was one of 16 websites hacked by Lycos Tripod employees within hours of its last updating on October 13, 2013. The websites are controlled by James Champa's website account, created in 2003, frequently updated and never blocked before.

 

Despite many requests to the company since then for an explanation of the blockage there has been only one reply   -    a wild and lewd insult from an employee in Waltham, Massachusetts. The hate mail was sent twice, in late October and early November 2013. 

 

Lycos Tripod employees have refused to explain the website account blockage or the hate mail.

 

Of the 16 websites controlled by the website account blocked by Lycos Tripod nine sites concern an international child trafficking case and were posted to assist law enforcement agencies to search for the trafficking victim. The other websites, including this website, concern cultural matters.

 

Legal counsel reviewed the website account and found nothing objectionable. The exposure of pedophiles and traffickers in children is substantiated by irrefutable documentation.

 

It appears that the hacking and hate mail were by more than one employee at Lycos Tripod in Waltham. All indications are that the hacker of the website account and the sender of hate mail conspired with an international pedophile and prostitution ring trafficking in women and children or its associates to remove the websites.

 

The relevant law enforcement authorities have been alerted to the hacking and the hate mail and shown evidence of a criminal conspiracy to traffic in women and children. The blockage of the website account is being investigated as a criminal matter.








































 
 
 
Evolution of Man
 
 
The Evolution of Language
 
Lecture by Jürgen Handke from the series Language Typology (2012)
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 

The Big Picture

 

 

 The major languages of the world today

Indo-European  45 – 46%

 

Sino-Tibetan  

 

Niger-Congo

 

Afro-Asiatic (includes Semitic languages Hebrew and Arabic)

 

Austronesian (believed to have originated in and spread from Taiwan/Formosa)

 

 

 

The Indo-European Languages

map1.jpg

The early historical distribution of Indo-European linguistic groups
 
 
 
The Origins and Spread of Languages
 
Short animation
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

An explanation of the Indo-European languages

 

2 parts

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74_3i53u8so&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRGa__lR0sw&feature=related

 

 

Language Reconstruction

 

Lecture from the series Language Typology by Jürgen Handke (2012)

 

Comparing languages to find a common ancestral origin   -   a proto-language

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yj_TrtaS4k

 

 

 

 

Where was the Indo-European homeland?

 

Where did Indo-Europeans originate?

 

Academics have proposed several hypotheses; the two most popular are:

 

1. North of the Black Sea in the present-day Ukraine and the Russian steppes north of the Caucasus between the Black Sea and Caspian in 2,000 BC

 

2. In Neolithic (New Stone Age) Anatolia (Asia Minor/Modern Asiatic Turkey)

 

 

History and Geography of Languages

 

Lecture by Martin W. Lewis and Asya Pereltsvaig at the Festival delle Scienze in Rome, Italy, January 26, 2014 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rYuPFpckHUc

 

 

Mismodeling Indo-European Origins

 

The Assault on Historical Linguistics

 

Lecture by Martin W. Lewis and Asya Pereltsvaig 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jHsy4xeuoQ

 

 

The Promise of Historical Linguistics and the Conundrum of Indo-European Origins

 

Lecture by Martin W. Lewis at the Oakmont Sunday Symposium, October 27, 2013

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZ01yeNziHo

 

 

Early Indo-European migrations, economies, and phylogenies

Lecture by David Anthony at a seminar, Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration, at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d864bwyCAoA

 

 

Wheeled vehicles, horses, and Indo-European origins

 

Lecture by David Anthony at a seminar, Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration, at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HliaR2Ep24s

 

Before Babel

In Search of the First Language

 

1997 Horizon documentary 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0phq7litTc

 

or

 

http://www.chockadoc.com/before-babel-in-search-of-the-first-language/

 

Transcript:

 

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2120glang.html

 

 

The Tocharians

 

 

Mummies of the Takla Makan

 

Mystery of the Mummies

 

Documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEgEHgeRoUE 

 

 

Same film with different narration:

 

 

Mysterious Mummies of China

 

1998 documentary by Nova

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dzZDLKI0c7Q

 

 

 

Before Silk 

 

Questions of East-West Exchange Before the Silk

Road

 

Lecture by Colin Renfrew

 

Secrets of the Silk Road Symposium, the U. of Penn. Museum, March 2011

 

On Tocharians

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NrLZ8CzRWk

 

 

Indo-European Dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe

 

Lecture by archeologist James Patrick Mallory

 

Secrets of the Silk Road Symposium, the U. of Penn. Museum, March 2011

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0HCs6PVnzI

 

 

 

The Problem of Tocharian Origins

 

Lecture by James Mallory at a seminar Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and Migration at the University of Copenhagen, December 12 - 14, 2012

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Q_tqVQHwFw

 

 

 

 

 

 

--------------

 

 

 
 

 
 
 
Writing
 
WHAT WAS THE FERTILE CRESCENT? 
THE FERTILE CRESCENT 
WAS THE CIVILIZATIONS 
OF AN ANCIENT REGION 
OF THE MIDDLE EAST 

 
 
Writing first appeared in the Fertile Crescent   -   the geographical region between the Tigris River in the east and the Nile River in the west.
 
But which came first?
 
Mesopotamian Cuneiform or Egyptian Heiroglyphs?
 
Scholars disagree.
 
Many believe both appeared at the same time.

 
kot37055_1106bta.jpg
Early Mesopotamian Cuneiform
 
 
Cuneiform writing
Late Mesopotamian Cuneiform
 
Old egypt hieroglyphs — Stock Photo #4314732

Egyptian Heiroglyphs

 

 

 

The Birth of Writing

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u7JsfwAcCo0 

 

 

Excerpt about ancient writing from a documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHOnhYCskd0

 

 

 

                 -------------------

 

 

 

Hammurabi's Law Code

 

Basalt stele with the code

of Hammurabi (1792 - 1750

BC) in the Akkadian language

in cuneiform script excavated

in Susa, Iran in 1901.

 

 

Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi

 

(1792 - 1750 B. C.)

 

Beth Harris and Steven Zucker visiting Le Louvre, Paris

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_w5NGOHbgTw

 

 

Hammurabi and the Earliest Written Laws

 

Excerpt from a lecture by Gregory Aldrete from The Great Courses

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIJZN4N8bnQ

 

 

The Code of Hammurabi

 

Audio (75:06)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zHP3J4Bdts


 

Hammurabi's Babylon

 

Lecture # 4 of 12 by Kenneth W. Harl from the course Origins of Great Ancient Civilizations (from The Great Courses)

 

Hammurabi's Code of Law; Ziusudra, Atrahasis, Gilgamesh; Babylon

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lL0vsA6GU6A

 

 

 

                        ---------------

 

 

 

   The Epic of Gilgamesh

 

A tablet with the Epic of Gilgamesh written in cuneiform

 

Tablet_V_of_the_Epic_of_Gligamesh._Newly_discovered._The_Sulaymaniyah_Museum,_Iraq.

Tablet V of the epic

 

Overview

 

(2 clips)

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O2TYgCytbLY&feature=related

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aI7hR3HghIs&feature=relmfu

 

 

Poem

 

(12 clips)

 

Prologue

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6KfBf7MiFw&feature=relmfu

 

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BHInCYIGq3E

 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxauXl43eG4&feature=relmfu

 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sT1OufYJnoU&feature=relmfu

 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0zwVo-sZXig&feature=relmfu

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DN3GztjYfQc&feature=relmfu

 

6. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8R00X_Tdacw&feature=relmfu

 

7. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CRbFzV8kdM&feature=relmfu

 

8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-cGKm7maHgw&feature=relmfu

 

9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxy_SJ6RCFw&feature=relmfu

 

10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHJvM36RvIs&feature=relmfu

 

11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSxHO_RUjT8&feature=relmfu

 

 

Le fantôme d'Uruk

 

À la recherche du roi Gilgamesh

 

Terra X Doku (2007)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DW2IvsZg7X0

 

ou

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4KBCQ24Dgc

 

 

Gilgamesh

 

Journeys to the End of the World

 

Lecture by Steve Tinney

 

Great Voyages Lecture Series

 

University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia

 

8 January 2014

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=46Xst2do8p4

 

Epic of Gilgamesh

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Andrew George, Frances Reynolds and Martin Worthington

3 November 2016

BBC:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b080wbrq

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7AVh9WwnvAM

 

 

Entire text of the Epic of Gilgamesh

 

http://www.aina.org/books/eog/eog.pdf

 

http://king-of-heroes.co.uk/the-epic-of-gilgamesh/reginald-campbell-thompson-translation/

 

http://www.civ.strangegirl.com/fullgilgamesh.html

 

Online audio reading of Tablet V in Old Akkadian:

 

http://www.openculture.com/2015/10/hear-the-epic-of-gilgamesh-read-in-the-original-akkadian-language.html

 

About the recently discovered Tablet V in Kurdistan:

 

http://www.openculture.com/2015/10/20-new-lines-from-the-epic-of-gilgamesh-discovered-in-iraq-adding-new-dimensions-to-the-story.html

 

 

 

                        ------------------------

 

 

 

         The Cyrus Cylinder

 

 

The Cyrus Cylinder (front  side shown in the above photo) is a barrel-shaped cylinder made from baked clay and measures a maximum 8.9 inches by a maximum 3.9 inches. Photo Source: Prioryman

 

The cylinder is covered with a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script on behalf of the Persian ruler Cyrus II the Great (ruled 559 - 530 BC), founder of the Achaemenid Empire (559 - 330 BC), and dates from Cyrus' conquest of the Neo- (New) Babylonian Empire c. 539 BC.

 

It was discovered in Babylon in 1871 and is today in the British Museum.
 

 

The Cyrus Cylinder

 

The Discovery and Creation of an Icon

 

A Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 

 

12 April 2012

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2qKQngMszM

 

 

The Cyrus Cylinder from Ancient Babylon and the Beginning of the Persian Empire

 

Lecture by John E. Curtis at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, New York

 

20 June 2013

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qIoEevJ6qE

 

 

 

 

Full text:

 

 

Full text read aloud (audio):

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3S4ZC-5GwMY

 

 

 

Achaemenid Empire of Cyrus the Great spread from the Aegean Sea to Central Asia

 

 

 

                   ------------------

 

 

 

  The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription

 

 

The Bisotun (Behistun) Inscription   -   texts and low reliefs carved from a cliff face of Mount Bisotun (Behistun) in present-day Iran.

 

The three separate inscriptions, each in a different languages   -   Old Persian, Elamite and Late Babylonian Akkadian   -   were written in cuneiform script and recount the conquests of King Darius I (the Great) of Persia (ruled 522 BC  -  486 BC).

 

The eventual decipherment of Old Persian in the mid-1800s simplified the translation of the Late Babylonian Akkadian.

 

 

Cracking the Code

 

An excerpt from a lecture by David Neiman from the course Cradles of Civilization, Los Angeles, California (2000)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TEow07oohUo

 

 

  

                  ----------

 

 

 

The History of Writing (to English)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TiE5uV1p6fs

 

 

The Evolution of Writing

 

Jürgen Handke (2014)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DpXAjekdQNM

 

 

Modern Writing Systems

 

Jürgen Handke (2014)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9noNcgJXQPY

 

 

 

                       ---------------

 

 

 

From Egyptian hieroglyphs to the Canaanite alphabet, to the Phoenician alphabet, to the Greek and Latin alphabets

 

Phoenician trading network 

 

 

 

 

The Mediterranean in 650 B. C. 

 

 

 

 

From Egyptian hieroglyphs to Phoenician to Greek to Latin

 

 

 

 

             The Rosetta Stone

 

The Rosetta Stone, a fragment of a stele, found near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta by a French soldier of Napoleon's expeditionary force to Egypt in 1799. 

 

The fragment had part of a decree issued for the Egyptian Pharoah Ptolemy V during the Hellenistic Period in Ptolemaic Egypt in 196 BC. Macedonians ruled Egypt from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BC.    

 

The decree is inscribed in two different languages, Ancient Egyptian and Ancient Greek, and three different scripts, Hieroglyphic, Ehyptian Demotic and Greek.

 

The text at the top is in the Ancient Egyptian language (2690 BC - late 1600s AD) and written in hieroglyphs (3200 BC - c. AD 400), the script of priests and religious documents.

 

The middle text is also in the Ancient Egyptian language but written in the Egyptian Demotic script (600s BC - 400s AD), the common language and common script of the time.

 

The text at the bottom is in Ancient Greek (800s BC  -  500s AD), the language and script of the Greek rulers and government officials of Egypt.

 

Knowledge of Ancient Greek allowed for the translation of the hieroglyphs.

 

 

The Rosetta Stone

 

Episode from the documentary series Ancient Mysteries (1996)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a40nkKmxAxc

 

 

Hieroglyphs

 

Episode from the documentary series The Science of Secrecy

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TXV30Aymnew

 

 

Decoding Hieroglyphics

 

An excerpt from a lecture by David Neiman in Los Angeles, California in 2000

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkciA72Oi0E

 

 

Encyclopaedia Galactica

 

Excerpts from episode 12, Encyclopaedia Galactica, of the 1980 documentary series Cosmos with Carl Sagan

 

Best viewed in the following sequence:

 

1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJwaq7ciTiA

 

2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHZQGuyLlSc

 

and

 

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W46HNESNhcg

 

or from the 09:35 mark to the 27:49 mark in the complete 60-minute episode

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cUs89bU1iv8

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g4CkXerRDps

 

 

The Rosetta Stone

 

Lecture by Richard Parkinson at Gresham College

 

Uploaded 2016

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7YNUmdJ4NM

 

 

The Rosetta Stone

 

With Beth Harris and Steven Zucker at the British Musuem

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFXY9-pec1I

 

 

Things You Might Not Know

 

By Tom Scott

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeQ-6eyMQ_o

 

 

English translations of Greek and Egyptian sections of the Rosetta Stone:

 

add links here

 

 

 

 

Picture
 
History of the Alphabet Source: BAS
 
Notes from BAS caption:
 
- 3,500 years ago
 
- Serabit miners
 
- Original Proto-Sinaitic letters from pictographs in Middle Egyptian hieroglyphs
 
- 1200 B.C.E. a more linear, abstracted script
 
- Iron Age Syria and Palestine
 
- Modern Hebrew letters developed from the Aramaic alphabet retain names of many original Proto-Sinaitic letters

 

 

 

Ugaritic, Canaanite, Hebrew and Phoenician are closely related languages

 

Source: American Heritage Dictionary

 

 

History of the Alphabet

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCkbrgnYL8o

 

 

 

The Alphabet

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Eleanor Robson, Alan Millard and Rosalind Thomas

 

18 December 2003

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0054950

 

 

 

                                             --------------------

 

 

 

 

Proto-Canaanite = Proto-Sinaitic

  

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcK-VFFKbCA&feature=related

 

 

 

Phoenicians and Genetics

 

Spencer Wells (2008)

 

"Genetically . . . the Canaanites, Phoenicians and Lebanese are the same people."

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZjF5IfuML0

 

 

 

 

Lebanese geneticists trace link to Phoenicians  

 

Al Jazeera

 

22 November 2008

 

"Only 27% of Lebanese carry the Phoenician gene." 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvlIrWk9utI

 

 


Tracing a Lost Civilization

 

Phoenician & Lebanese DNA

 
Inside the Middle East
 
CNN
 
 
 
 

The Quest for the Phoenicians

Film documentary

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBObLQZdeq8

 

 

 

 

Sailing with the Phoenicians

 

Episode from the documentary series Secrets of Archeology

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YctseaBS-wE

 

or

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j32yCYm6DFc

 

 

 

 

The Phoenicians

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Mark Woolmer, Josephine Quinn and Cyprian Broodbank

 

6 February 2014

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03szw8l

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8g72xWIDfk

 

 

 

 

 

22-letter Phoenician alphabet (in the above chart)

 

 

 

How the Phoenicians started the Alphabet

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcK-VFFKbCA 

 

 

 
Ancient Greek alphabet 

 

ancient greek alphabet

Source: Hellenism.Net
 
 
The oldest example of writing in Ancient Greek, displayed above, It is believed to date from circa 800 B. C.. It was found in an inscription on the Mediterranean island of Crete. Ancient Greek was written from right to left on a horizontal line.
 
The Greek letters appear on the top line. Their names in Greek script appear on the second line. Their names and letters in modern Latin script appear on the third and fourth lines. 
(Source: Hellenism.Net()

 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDwQoMEpJF0&feature=related

 
 
 
 
Phoenician and Early Greek alphabets compared with other ancient scripts (in the chart below)

 

 

 

---------------

 
 
 
 
 
Modern Greek
 

 

modern greek alphabet

 

Source: Hellenism.Net

 

 

 
 
 
 
                  -----------------
 
 
 
 
The Rise of Greek Civilization
 
Lecture # 5 from the course The Western Tradition by Eugen Weber at UCLA (1989)
 
 
 
 
 
  
                                                    ------------------
 
 
 
 
 
                     The Trojan War
 
 
File:Beware of Greeks bearing gifts.jpg
The Trojan horse
 
 
 
Introduction to Ancient Greek History
 
A history course by Donald Kagan at Yale U. in Autumn 2007
 
Lecture 2. The Dark Ages
 
1. The Minoan Civilization (Crete)
2. Mycenaean language (Greek) and writing (Linear B script)
3. The citadel, farmland, burials and the olive oil trade
4. Cultural unity, agriculture, religious authority
5. Society and economy
6. Theories about the fall of the Mycenaean world

7. Results of the fall
 
 
and
 
 
Transcript:
 
 

Lecture 3 - The Dark Ages (continued)
 
1. The importance of Homeric poems
2. The society described in Homer's poems
3. Political structures
4. Ethics and values
 
 
and
 
 
Transcript:
 
 
Lecture 4 - The Rise of the Polis (city-state)
 
1.Defining "Arête" (prowess, excellence)
2.Impacts on western civilization
---------------- 
3.The rise of the "Polis" (city-state) [00:36:02]
4.The features and importance of the "Polis" 
 
 
and
 
 
Transcript:
 
 
 
 
                           Homer
 
 

Homer

 
 
                          The Iliad
 
 
The Trojan War & Homeric Warfare
 
Lecture # 6 by Garrett Fagan the course Great Battles of the Ancient World
 
 
 
 
The Olympian Gods and the Trojan War
 
 
 
 
The Olympian Goddesses and the Trojan War
 
 
 
 
Homer
 
The Iliad
 
Audio
 
Episode from IntelliQuest World 100 Greatest Books (1995)
 
 
 
 
The Iliad, Illustrated
 
Carey Harrison
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fury of Achilles
 
Movie (1962) 
 
 
 
 
Helen of Troy
 
2004 movie (2:47:14)
 
 
 
 
Helen of Troy 
 
BBC documentary with Bettany Hughes
 
 
 
 
In Search of the Trojan War
 
BBC documentary series with Michael Wood on the BBC (1985) 
 
6 episodes
 
1. The Age of Heroes
 
 
2. The Legend Under Siege
 
 
3. The Singer of Tales
 
 
4. The Women of Troy
 
 
5. Empire of the Hittites 
 
 
6. The Fall of Troy
 
 
Extra   -   Michael Wood Interview (2004)
 
 
 
 
Achilles and Agamemnon  
 
Lecture 2 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
 
 
 
 
Hector
 
Lecture 3 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
 
 
 
 
Was there a Trojan War?
 
Recent Excavations at Troy
 
Lecture by Brian Rose, University of Pennsylvania Museum, 
December 5, 2012
 
 
 
 

The Trojan War

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time 

with Melvyn Bragg and his guests, May 31, 2012

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01j6srl

 
 
 
The Collapse of the Bronze Age
 
Lecture 9 of 12 from the course Origin of Civilizations by Kenneth Harl 
 
 
 
 
Apocalypse
 
Secrets of the Aegean Apocalypse
 
Documentary
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
 
 
                          The Odyssey
 
 
 
Homer
 
The Odyssey
 
Episode from IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books (1995)(38:11) 
 
 
 
 
Odysseus
 
Lecture 4 of 24 from the course Famous Greeks by Rufus Fears
 
 
 
 
The Odyssey, Nostalgia, and the Lost Home
 
Lecture by Peter Struck at the University of Pennsylvania 
Museum (2014) 
 
 
 
 
Ulysses
 
1954 movie (1:41:35)
 
 
 
 
 
 
                       -------------
 
 

 
 
 

 

 

 

Etruscan alphabet

 

Etruscan alphabet (ca. 400 B. C.) 

 

 

 

 

The Etruscan Civilization 

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time with Melvyn Bragg and his guests

 

With guests Phil Perkins, David Ridgway and Corinna Riva

 

29 August 2011

 

BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0151q7j

 

or

 

You Tube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xl9jznPyE78

 

 

A Place called Etruria

 

Episode from the documentary series Secrets of Archeology

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0UARtJekL7M  (35:30)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ppEdomoXPo (25:00)

 

 

 

Enigma of the Etruscans

 

Episode from the documentary series Lost Worlds

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9h_uisjfm7I  (55:35)

 

 

 

 

  ------------------------------

 

 

 

Latin

 

 

Latin

 

An Indo-European language 

 

The Indo-European Language Family and Latin

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPh03KsGrAA&feature=related

 

 

Why Study Latin?

 

1951 Coronet educational film (10:59)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCe5O_LFSWE

 

 

Latin

 

Historical Presentation and Pronunciation Tutorial 

 

Indo-European

  Italic

    Archaic Latin

      Classical Latin

        Late Latin

          Vulgar Latin

            Medieval Latin

              Renaissance Latin

                Early Modern Latin

                  Neo Latin

                    Ecclesiastical/Liturgical Latin  

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SUqF32dKnU

 

 

What Latin sounded like

 

. . . and how we know

 

Short video (05:58)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_enn7NIo-S0

 

 

 

Latin Alphabet

 

 

Archaic Latin alphabet

 

 

Archaic Latin alphabet (with variants) (from 500s B. C. to 75 B. C.)

 

 

 

 

Classical Latin Alphabet 

 

Classical Latin alphabet   

 

 

Classical Latin alphabet had 23 letters

   (in the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z80cDqVmNQA&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PLA58079011003A570

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHqK6IrWOkI&feature=related

 

 

Latin consonants

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0oWWOJW3948

 

Latin vowels

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwtgvwJljto&feature=related

 

Latin gender

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=kgNAANyE8rs

 

Latin numbers (and counting) 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PDCv4phngm8&feature=related

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d25AKX4SYNI&feature=related

 

 

                              ------

 

 

Roman Numerals

Roman numerals image

The seven Roman letters used in numerals

 

Roman Numerals Chart

The Mathematics of Love

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Be1cIyq9uBA

 

 

The Basics of Roman Numerals

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_vX7bni8es&feature=related

 

 

How to Read Roman Numerals

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=49oWYxExWKE

 

 

Roman Numerals

Counting  1  - 100

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d25AKX4SYNI

 

 

Counting in Latin

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xAf5ki7yJ8k&feature=related

 

 

Reading Roman Numerals

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROns8oPLH_4&feature=related

 

 

Roman Numerals

200 to 300

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eDAe8innSQU&feature=related

 

 

The Origin of Roman Numerals

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ik4yloCszYo  

 

 

 

                         -----------------

 

 

 
 
 
 

Example of spoken Latin

 

Rome's Greatest Battles, a two-part documentary by National Geographic in 2010, about two battles, Philippi (42 BC) and Actium (31 BC), includes monologues and dialogues in Latin.

 

 

Brutus and the Opposition to Caesar

 

Lecture # 13 of 24 of the course Famous Romans by J. Rufus Fears

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rgwJcILRmWk

 

 

The Death of Caesar

 

History's Most Famous Assassination

 

Lecture by Barry Strauss at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 22 July 2015

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucvqNtfxxbk

 

 

Philippi

 

The Battle of Philippi in 42 BC

 

Part 1 of a two-part documentary, Rome's Greatest Battles, by National Geographic (2010)

 

Movie with Latin dialogue with English sub-titles narrated in English

 

Following the assassination of Julius Caesar, the forces of Ceasar's long-time right-hand man, Marc Antony, and Caesar's adopted son and heir, Octavian, defeat Caesar's assassins, Cassius and Brutus, at Philippi in Macedonia in 42 BC.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12eM9E0Q00U

 

Excerpts:

 

Marc Antony addresses the Roman senate after Caesar's murder

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_IPqniaZR0&feature=related

 

Marc Antony addresses the people of Rome at Caesar's funeral

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBbdj_1B8vI&feature=youtu.be

 

Caesar's Will and Octavian

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QiLT29hDhag&feature=relmfu

 

 

Actium

 

The Battle of Actium (31 BC)

 

Part 2 of the two-part documentary Rome's Greatest Battles by National Geographic (2010)

 

The naval forces of Octavian defeat the naval forces of Marc Antony (83 - 30 BC) and the Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69 - 30) in the Ionian Sea off the Greek coast of Epirus outside the Gulf of Actium.

 

The victory over Antony gave Octavian sole command of the Roman empire. Egypt was made a province of Rome. 

 

Movie with Latin dialogue with English sub-titles narrated in English

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_2VJAbFSKAk

 

 

 

                                        --------------------

 
 
 
 
                      Virgil
 
 

Virgil, 70 BC - 19 BC

Publius Vergilius Maro

(70 BC - 19 BC)

 

 

 

 

                       The Aeneid

 

 

Virgil reading the Aeneid to Augustus and Octavia (1787) by Jean-Joseph Taillasson (1745 - 1809)

 

 

The journey of Aeneas from Troy to Carthage to Latium

 

 

 

The Travels of Aeneas

 

Documentary follows the voyage of Aeneas from Troy to Latium

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJm9N5FIh7Y

 

 

 

Virgil

 

The Aeneid

 

Audio

 

Episode from IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books (1995)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EoMREfwe9k

 

 

 

The Aeneid

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests Edith Hall, Philip Hardie and Catharine Edwards

 

21 April 2005

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vv-sjva4ndQ

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9c1  

 

 

 

The Aeneid

 

Reading in Latin with written Latin and English translation - lines 1 - 755

 

lines 1 - 290

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LEPvfi3r_uE&feature=relmfu

 

lines 290 - 490

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7S91LTjGDdk&feature=relmfu

 

lines 490 - 594

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0lM7ujvGKU&feature=relmfu

 

lines 594 - 695

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_StdHTgqo5M&feature=relmfu

 

lines 695 - 755

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9mhRmzd0rmg&feature=relmfu

 

 

 

The Trojan Horse

 

(The Wooden Horse of Troy)

 

1961 movie with Steeve Reeves as Aeneas

 

La Guerre de Troie (French version) (1:41:02)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zm4FwKWaPyw

 

 

 

The Legend of Aeneas

 

1962 sequel to The Trojan Horse, with Steeve Reeves (1:35:36)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YM6h31_9KQU

 

or

 

The Avenger

 

Another edition or version of the same movie, also with Steeve Reeves (1:36:18)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSQ2f4hS_no

 

 

 

Augustus

 

Lecture 15 of 24 from the course Famous Romans by Rufus Fears

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=47dIyfbj4Sg 

 

 

 

The Augustan Age

 

Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg 

 

With guests Catharine Edwards, Duncan Kennedy and Mary Beard

 

11 June 2009

 

BBC:

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00ktfmw

 

You Tube:

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kX4n4BW4II4

 

 

 

Virgil

 

Lecture 16 of 24 from the course Famous Romans by Rufus Fears

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGqfeT8Vprc 

 

 

 

Reading Virgil through the Ages

 

Lecture by Ralph Hexter

 

Emory University, 6 November 2013)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rc7erbVNxqU

 

 

 

                       ------------------------

 

 

 

 

An Example of spoken Latin

 

 

Imperator (Emperor)

 

A story about the Roman Emperor Otho (AD 32 - 16 April AD 69)

 

Marcus Salvius Otho was the second of the four successive emperors in the eighteen months following the death of the emperor Nero in AD 68.

 

The emperor Nero was ousted in a revolt and 

committed suicide (9 June AD 68).

 

Several vied to replace him as emperor.

 

There were four emperors in quick succession in AD 68 and AD 69   -   Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. 

 

General Galba, governor in Spain, joined a revolt against Nero in AD 68. At Nero's death, Galba was proclaimed emperor by the armies and by the senate in Rome (9 June AD 68). Galba marched to Rome.

 

The armies revolted against Galba in January AD 69. General Otho in Rome toppled Galba. The Praetorian Guard and senate proclaimed Otho emperor and Galba was killed on the same day (15 January AD 69).

 

Vitellius, the Roman governor in Germany, marched on Rome with his army. Otho marched north from Rome to confront Vitellius. Otho was defeated in battle. Preferring to spare Romans further civil war, Otho committed suicide (16 April AD 69). The senate in Rome proclaimed Vitellius emperor (16 April AD 69). 

 

General Vespasian, commanding the Roman army putting down the Jewish revolt in Judea, was proclaimed emperor by the armies in Judea and Egypt (1 July AD 69). The Roman armies in Europe also proclaimed Vespasian emperor and marched south on Rome. Vitellius marched north from Rome to confront them. Vespasian's army marched north, met Vitellius and defeated him. Vitellius returned to Rome where Vespasian's soldiers killed him (22 December AD 69). The senate proclaimed Vespasian, who was in Egypt, emperor.

 

Titus Flavius Vespasianus reigned for ten years, till his death in AD 79. He founded a new dynasty, known as the Flavian Dynasty, which ruled for 27 years (AD 69 AD - AD 96). He was succeeded by his two sons, Titus and Domitian. 

 

2004 movie in Classic Latin with English sub-titles

 

This upload runs 01:15:07)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9UECC49_7PY

 

 

To better appreciate the story of Otho see the following:

 

 

The Year 69

 

Uploaded by Arjan van Hoom (2008)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A6toq1lYcO4

 

 

The Long Year, A. D. 69

 

An excerpt, about Galba, from a lecture, The Long Year, A. D. 69, # 7 of 36 by Garrett Fagan from the 2007 course Emperors of Rome (11:10)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tc0zMugR4Q0

 

 

Galba

 

A short description of the emperor Galba by Adrian Murdoch from the series Emperors of Rome (2011)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-fcxTUSliWY

 

 

Otho

 

Murdoch

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a2EfmAxtd6U

 

 

Vitellius

 

Murdoch

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnMrKB0rehg

 

 

Vespasian

 

Murdoch

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z_96ZQAbvCI

 

 

 

 

                          -----------------

 

 

 

File:Venn diagram showing Greek, Latin and Cyrillic letters.svg 

How Greek, Cyrillic and Latin compare   -   how they match and differ

 

 

 
 

 

--------------------------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Historical Perspective

 

Birth of Britain

 

Three-part 2010 National Geographic documentary with Tony Robinson

Part 1. Hidden Volcanoes

 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aBWJZBdWug0

 

Part 2. Ice Age

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvk6DUmTuvE

 

 

 

 

Europe in the last Ice Age 

 

 

 

YEARS AGO                    PERIOD                 CLIMATE

750,000 - 350,000   Cromerian Interglacial   Warm


350,000 - 250,000   Anglian Glacial                 Cold


250,000 - 200,000   Hoxnian Interglacial       Warm


200,000 - 125,000   Wolstonian Glacial          Cold


125,000 - 72,000      Ipswichian Interglacial  Warm


72,000 - 12,000        Devensian Glacial           Cold


 

 


 

A History of Britain

 

First four parts of an 8-part documentary series with Neil Oliver

 

Ancient Britain

 

1. Britain in the Ice Age

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjnKCuGZSEI

 

 

2. Ancestors of the Britons

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-5AK4r_6RQ

 

 

 

                                           --------------------------------

 

 

 

 

1977 photo 

 

Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire (3000 -

1600 BC)

 

Stonehenge

    Stonehenge dates back nearly 5,000 years and is located on the Salisbury plains 
    Excavations on the site continue to this day trying to unlock the mysteries that surround the stones
    The blue stones come from over 200 miles away in the Preseli mountains 


Stonehenge today

 

Sketch of Stonehenge 2,500 years ago   -   sunrays at

the summer solstice directed onto the center stone

Source: Astroarcheology

 

 

See photos of 1954 reconstruction work:

 

http://www.amazfacts.com/2013/01/stonehenge-construction-in-1954-108-pics.html

 

 

3. Britain’s Cosmologists

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_s3ubuIyZA

 

 

4. Britain in the Bronze Age

 

ca. 2,500 - 600 B. C.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6zaNrOPxwA

 

 

 

 

Operation Stonehenge

 

What Lies Beneath

 

2014 BBC documentary in two parts 

 

Part 1.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UJINyOOW6P8

 

Part 2.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6cDUAK4Re_4

 

 

 

 

Secrets of Stonehenge

 

Nova documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOw-n2lX8mk

 

 

 

 

Who Built Stonehenge?

 

Episode from the Naked Science documentary series

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP2DlTwQuIY

 

 

 

 

The Mystery of Stonehenge

 

History Documentary

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nYo1fo8csTs

 

 

 

 

The Secrets of Stonehenge

 

Time Team Special

 

Episode # 41 (2009)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2GVfGUk48I

 

 

 

 

                                                ----------------------------------------

 

 

 

 

Britain B. C.

 

First two episodes of five from the 2004 documentary series A History of Britain with Francis Pryor

 

Episode 1.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qZo0_YaBhc

 

Episode 2.

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vp1TpNzcXcY

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
---------------------
 
 
 
 
 
The Celts
 
 
Europe: from Hallstatt in the 800s B. C. to La Tène in the 400s B. C.
 
 
The Celts
 
1986 6-part BBC documentary series with Frank Delaney
 
Each part about 50 minutes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Naked Warriors of Europe
 
1995 episode from the A & E documenary series Ancient Mysteries
 
 
 
 
The Celts
 
2000 BBC documentary series
 
1. Halstatt
 
 
2. La Tène
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Primitve Celts
 
Episode from the 2006 documentary series Barbarians with Terry Jones
 
 
 
 
New ideas on the origins of the Celts
 
Barry Cunliffe (2012)
 

 

Who were the Celts?

2008 lecture by Barry Cunliffe
 
 
 
 
The Celts
 
Discussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg
 
With guests Barry Cunliffe, Alistair Moffat and
Miranda Aldhouse Green
 
21 February 2002 
 
 
or
 
 
 
 
 
Map - distribution of celtic anguages today
 

Areas where Celtic languages are spoken today
 
 

 

The Celts settled the British Isles in three waves, from ca. 500 B. C. to ca. 100 BC  

1. Hallstaat Culture  500 - 450 BC

2. La Tene Culture 250 BC

3. Belgae 100 BC

 

 

A History of Britain 

 

8-part documentary series with Neil Oliver 

 

Celtic Britain  

 

All of the last four episodes in one 

5. Britain in the Iron Age

 

800 BC  -  AD 43

 

6. Britain’s Heroic Warriors

 

7. Roman Invasion of Britain 

 

AD 43

 

8. Roman Britain

 

AD 43  -  AD 410

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwqjJn3IaoM

 

 

 

------------------

 

 

 
 
 
Rome and Britain
 
A D 43  - A D 410
 
 
Bust of Julius Caesar (100 B C -
44 B C)
 
 
Julius Caesar led the first Roman incursions to Britain in 55 B. C. and 54 B. C. 
 
The Roman emperors Augustus and Caligula  called off plannned invasions of Britain.
 
 
Bust of Roman emperor
Claudius (AD 41 - AD 54)
 
 
 
Under the emperor Claudius, Rome invaded Britain in A. D. 43 and began the process of conquest and colonization in Britain. Claudius toured Britain in A. D. 44. for 16 days.   
 

 

 

 

Caractacus, king of the Catuvellauni, a Celtic Belgae tribe, presented in chains to the Roman Emperor Claudius in Rome in A. D. 51. (From a print in the 1700s.)

 

Claudius freed Caractacus and he resettled in Italy.

 

 
 

The Roman Invasions

 

Documentary narrated by Brian Blessed (1993)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyxCycfwKVE

 

 

 

 

Roman emperor Claudius subduing Britannia in a relief from the Sebasteion (a shrine to the Julio-Claudians) in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor
 

image img for term side of card

A sketch of the arch of Claudius in Rome, erected in honor of his success in Britain (A. D. 51 - 52)

 

An inscription from the arch, today in the Capitoline Museum:

 

The Senate and People of Rome to Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Drusus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunician eleven times, Consul five times, Imperator 22 times, Censor, Father of the Fatherland, because he received the surrender of eleven kings of the Britons defeated without any loss, and the first who brought barbarian peoples from across the Ocean into the dominion of the Roman people.

 

For the inscription see:

 

tp://ancientrome.ru/art/artworken/img.htm?id=3819&sa=X&ved=0CB0Q9QEwA2oVChMItNnwxoH4xgIVV46OCh2yNghM  

 

For details see:

 

Understanding Roman Inscriptions, pp. 476 - 47:

 

https://books.google.co.th/books?id=FJmFAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=inscription+on+arch+of+claudius&source=bl&ots=T3ZVKgarlL&sig=bq5aX6Yn1tI9Z9zyY7tECAbl-lA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CEYQ6AEwDWoVChMIrIj7yIj4xgIVlQiOCh1P3AVW#v=onepage&q=inscription%20on%20arch%20of%20claudius&f=false

 

 

Map of Early Britain: Stages of Roman Conquest

Rome conquered Britain in four stages, from A. D. 43 to A. D. 80 

 

 

 

The Invasion of Britain

 

Episode # 5 of 14-part 2006 BBC documentary series Rome  -  Rise and Fall of an Empire 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOBMQ0DB-BY 

 

or

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPshF-lRLhY 

 

Rome

 

The Last Frontier

 

3-part documentary series (2009)

 

1. Invasion

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrI5AgMrUfw 

 

2. Revolt

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5kM_b1CGvU

 

3. Dominion 

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OnPdHU4kl2c

 

 

 

The Roman Invasions of Britain

 

Three-part 2008 BBC documentary with Bettany Hughes

 

1. Onslaught

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Og1HEjW34rM

2. Revolt

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVa6ctnCNRM

3. Dominion

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8wTTlR0qLN8

 

The Druids' Last Stand

 

Episode 4 of Series 14 from Tiime Team with Tony Robinson in Anglesey (2007)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-fKlfDxEBY

 

 

 

Fishbourne Roman Palace - Fishbourne, West Sussex

Mosaic from Italy in Roman palace in Fishbourne, West Sussex, c. A. D. 60 - 60

 

   

The Big Roman Villa

 

Time Team excavates a Roman villa in Dinnington, Somerset on Big Roman Dig (2006)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9kUAJCsJ-A 

 

and (2005)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_ezitJBvz8

 

and (2005)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_oJWExQZZ4

 

and more . . .

 

 

 

In Lancashire, one of many ancient

Roman roads in Britain

  

  

Boudicca statue 

Statue of Boudica by Westminster

Bridge in London

 

 

Boudica means Victory, or Victoria

 

 

 

Boudica   -   Revolt against Romans in Britain 

 

Episode from the documentary series Battlefields with Peter and Dan Snow

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xv0ETqF-WOQ

 

 

Boudica

 

Discussion on the weekly BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

11 March 2010

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00r7lr9 

 

 

 

In Search of Boudica 

 

1980 episode from the BBC documentary series In Search of the Dark Ages with Michael Wood

 

Boudica was the Queen of the Iceni, a prominent tribe of Celts, who led a revolt against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 60/61.  

      

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WL594VdzmJs

 

or

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WL594VdzmJs

 

or in 5 clips:

1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XxXMUOUXZ5Q 

2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6TX7Tmk7BY&feature=related 

3. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRubVuMZSOM&feature=related 

4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmLe35rcsFg&feature=related 

 

5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j1PLXlO4Qes&feature=related

 

 

 

Boudicca's Lost Tribe

 

Time Team Special (2011)

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UrOSHXoP3yE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roman Empire during the reign of Hadrian (A. D. 117 - 138)

 

 

 

Hadrian's Wall was built in northern Britain between A. D. 122 and A. D. 128. The Antonine Wall was built in present-day Scotland between A. D. 142 and A. D. 154 and abandoned in A. D. 162.

 

 

Hadrian's Wall in northern Britain

 

 

 

Hadrian's Wall

 

Timewatch Special documentary with Julian Richards 

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dVNq6NFeYAM

 

 

 

Antonine Wall (electropod)

Antonine Wall in Scotland

 

 

 

 

The Great Conspiracy

 

Rome ca. A. D. 369, after the Great Conspiracy was put down by Rome 

 

 

 

The Great Conspiracy

 

Podcast

 

http://thehistoryofrome.typepad.com/the_history_of_rome/2011/08/149-the-great-conspiracy-.html

 

 

 

Roman Britain

 

What the Romans did for US 

Documentary with Adam Hart-Davis (2000)

 

1. Roman luxury

2. Invading Britain

3. Building Roman Britain

4. Roman roads

5, Roman walls

6. Roman inventions

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awb0dFJZFuc

 

 

  

Roman Britian

 

Diiscussion on the weekly Thursday BBC radio programme In Our Time hosted by Melvyn Bragg

 

With guests

 

1 May 2003

 

http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00548xn

 

 

 

The End of Roman Britain

 

Lecture, Wales (2010)

 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FlwwLrA35YI

 

 

  

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